Evaluation of human monoclonal antibody 80R for immunoprophylaxis of severe acute respiratory syndrome by an animal study, epitope mapping, and analysis of spike variants

Journal of Virology
Jianhua SuiWayne A Marasco

Abstract

In this report, the antiviral activity of 80R immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), a human monoclonal antibody against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) protein that acts as a viral entry inhibitor in vitro, was investigated in vivo in a mouse model. When 80R IgG1 was given prophylactically to mice at doses therapeutically achievable in humans, viral replication was reduced by more than 4 orders of magnitude to below assay limits. The essential core region of S protein required for 80R binding was identified as a conformationally sensitive fragment (residues 324 to 503) that overlaps the receptor ACE2-binding domain. Amino acids critical for 80R binding were identified. In addition, the effects of various 80R-binding domain amino acid substitutions which occur in SARS-like-CoV from civet cats, and which evolved during the 2002/2003 outbreak and in a 2003/2004 Guangdong index patient, were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the vast majority of SARS-CoVs are sensitive to 80R. We propose that by establishing the susceptibility and resistance profiles of newly emerging SARS-CoVs through early S1 genotyping of the core 180-amino-acid neutralizing epitope of 80R, an effective immunoprophylaxis strategy wit...Continue Reading

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