PMID: 6678312Dec 1, 1983Paper

Evaluation of potential causes for the incomplete bioavailability of furosemide: gastric first-pass metabolism

Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics
M G Lee, W L Chiou


Potential causes for reported incomplete (usually 40-60%) and often highly variable (e.g., 11-79%) bioavailability of furosemide in humans were investigated. The drug was found to be fairly stable in gastric fluids and its hepatic first-pass elimination (HFPE) was estimated to be much less than 6% based on published i.v. data. The rat was used as the main model for extensive evaluation. About 4% (n = 4) of dose was recovered unchanged in the GI tract after i.v. injection while about 40% (n = 12) was recovered after a 120-fold (0.05-6 mg) dose range of oral administration. In another study 70% of the oral dose eventually disappearing (presumably due to absorption and first-pass elimination) from the GI tract was estimated to occur in just 20 min. These data indicate an unsaturable, incomplete, site-specific absorption as well as a lack of dissolution-rate-limited absorption at the doses studied. Based on plasma data, oral bioavailability in four rats was only 30%, and the HFPE much less than 10%. After oral administration, 61% of the dose was absorbed and/or metabolized in the GI recovery study. Thus, 20-30% of oral dose in rats must be metabolized in the GI wall during absorption. The metabolic activity of stomach (homogenate) ...Continue Reading


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