Evidence for the generation of transaminase inhibitor(s) during ethanol metabolism by rat liver homogenates: a potential mechanism for alcohol toxicity

Biochemical Medicine and Metabolic Biology
L R Solomon


Since ethanol consumption decreases hepatic aminotransferase activities in vivo, mechanisms of ethanol-mediated transaminase inhibition were explored in vitro using mitochondria-depleted rat liver homogenates. When homogenates were incubated at 37 degrees with 50 mM ethanol for 1 hr, alanine aminotransferase decreased by 20%, while aspartate aminotransferase was unchanged. After 2 hr, aspartate aminotransferase decreased by 20% and by 3 hr, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were decreased by 31 and 23%, respectively. Levels of acetaldehyde generated during ethanol oxidation were 525 +/- 47 microM at 1 hr, 855 +/- 14 microM at 2 hr, and 1293 +/- 140 microM at 3 hr. Although inhibition of alcohol oxidation with methylpyrazole or cyanide markedly decreased ethanol-mediated transaminase inhibition, neither incubation with acetate nor generation of reducing equivalents by oxidation of lactate, malate, xylitol, or sorbitol altered the activity of either enzyme. However, semicarbazide, an aldehyde scavenger, prevented inhibition of both aminotransferases by ethanol. Moreover, incubation with 5 mM acetaldehyde for 1 hr inhibited alanine and aspartate aminotransferases by 36 and 26%, respectively. Cyanamide, an aldehyde dehydrogen...Continue Reading


Sep 30, 1987·Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry·L R Solomon
Jan 1, 1990·Pharmacology & Therapeutics·C S Lieber
Sep 1, 1993·Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology·C S Lieber
Aug 1, 1997·Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA·M L Figliomeni, M S Abdel-Rahman
Jan 1, 1991·Drug and Alcohol Review·C S Lieber
Jan 4, 1998·Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology·H IshiiS Kato
Aug 1, 1991·Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research·C S Lieber
Feb 1, 2013·BMC Veterinary Research·Yosra Belaïd-NouiraHassen Ben Cheikh
Mar 5, 2016·Ecology and Evolution·Christine F StevensonAnne K Salomon
May 25, 2007·Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology·Yuji Hiratsuka, Tsuyoshi Uehara
Jul 22, 2008·Evolution & Development·Andrew B Smith
Apr 30, 2015·Microscopy Research and Technique·Yaroslav O Kamenev, Igor Yu Dolmatov
Dec 1, 1989·Biochemical Medicine and Metabolic Biology·L R Solomon, J Y Crouch
Dec 1, 1991·Journal of the American College of Nutrition·C S Lieber
Jan 1, 1995·Critical Reviews in Toxicology·F E Ahmed
Dec 22, 1988·The New England Journal of Medicine·C S Lieber
Jan 1, 1994·Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology·C S Lieber

Related Concepts

SGPT - Glutamate pyruvate transaminase
SGOT - Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase
Cyanamide, Calcium (2: 1) Salt
Cytoplasmic Matrix
August Rats

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Congenital Hyperinsulinism

Congenital hyperinsulinism is caused by genetic mutations resulting in excess insulin secretion from beta cells of the pancreas. Here is the latest research.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Femoral Neoplasms

Femoral Neoplasms are bone tumors that arise in the femur. Discover the latest research on femoral neoplasms here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Related Papers

Biochemical Pharmacology
M A LeoC S Lieber
Hepatology : Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
X L MaC S Lieber
Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
L R Solomon
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved