Evidence from rats that morphine tolerance is a learned response
It is proposed that the direct analgesic effect of morphine becomes attenuated over the course of successive administrations of the narcotic by a conditioned, compensatory, hyperalgesic response elicited by the administration procedure, the net result being analgesic tolerance. Using the "hot plate" analgesia assessment situation with rats, this conditioning view of tolerance is supported by several findings: (a) It is necessary to have reliable environmental cues predicting the systemic effects of morphine if tolerance is to be observed, (b) a hyperalgesic conditioned response may be observed in morphine-tolerant subjects when drug administration cues are followed by a placebo, and (c) merely by repeatedly presenting environmental cues previously associated with morphine (but now presented with a placebo), morphine tolerance can be extinguished.
Ventral pallidal injections of a mu antagonist block the development of behavioral sensitization to systemic morphine
Scopolamine produces environment-specific conditioned activity that is not blocked by pimozide in rats
Response specificity of behaviorally augmented tolerance to ethanol supports a learning interpretation
Absence of environment-specificity in morphine tolerance acquired in non-distinctive environments: habituation or stimulus overshadowing?
Effect of environmental novelty and electroconvulsive shock on the tail flick reflex after placebo or morphine pellet implants
Acute recovery and tolerance to low doses of alcohol: differences in cognitive and motor skill performance
Prior stress attenuates the analgesic response but sensitizes the corticosterone and cortical dopamine responses to stress 10 days later
Situational specificity of tolerance to effects of phencyclidine on responding of rats under fixed-ratio and spaced-responding schedules
Environment-dependent effects of ethanol on DOPAC and HVA in various brain regions of ethanol-tolerant rats
Tolerance to nicotine following chronic treatment by injections: a potential role for corticosterone
Response outcomes affect the retention of behavioral tolerance to alcohol: information and incentive
Paced smoking in the laboratory and in the natural smoking setting: differential situation-specific effects in light and heavy smokers
Effects of post-ethanol administration of NMDA and non-NMDA receptor antagonists on the development of ethanol tolerance in C57B1 mice
Pavlovian conditioning of morphine hyperthermia: assessment of interstimulus interval and CS-US overlap
Cross-tolerance of associative and nonassociative morphine tolerance in the rat with mu- and kappa-specific opioids
Loss of tolerance to morphine after a change in route of administration: control of within-session tolerance by interoceptive conditioned stimuli
Acute stress or corticosterone administration reduces responsiveness to nicotine: implications for a mechanism of conditioned tolerance
Evidence that genetic differences in habituation and GABAergic mechanisms may be related to sensitivity to ethanol and development of ethanol tolerance in mice
Associative and behavioral tolerance to the analgesic effects of nicotine in rats: tail-flick and paw-lick assays
Compensating for alcohol-induced impairment of control: effects on inhibition and activation of behavior
Latency to first naloxone-induced jump as a measure of precipitated abstinence intensity in morphine-dependent mice and the interaction of set on this test
Development of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia as a function of number of trials in insulin conditioning
Role of experience in acquisition and loss of tolerance to the effect of delta-9-THC on spaced responding
Exposure to a nonfunctional hot plate as a factor in the assessment of morphine-induced analgesia and analgesic tolerance in rats
Apparent lack of tolerance in the formalin test suggests different mechanisms for morphine analgesia in different types of pain
The effect of post-conditioning exposure to morphine on the retention of a morphine-induced conditioned taste aversion
Attenuation of pentobarbital-elicited hypothermia in rats with a history of pentobarbital-LiCl pairings
Conditioning and place-specific sensitization of increases in activity induced by morphine in the VTA
Learned and pharmacologically-induced tolerance to ethanol and cross-tolerance to morphine and clonidine
Isodirectional conditioning effects of d-amphetamine and pentobarbital on schedule-controlled operant behavior in pigeons
A contingent, conditioned suppression of eating following chronic benzodiazepine-induced hyperphagia
Oxytocin blocks the environmentally conditioned compensatory response present after tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia in mice
Role of environmental cues as Pavlovian-conditioned stimuli in enhancement of tolerance to ethanol effects: 1. Lethal effects in mice and rats
Effects of oxytocin and a derivative (Z-prolyl-D-leucine) on morphine tolerance/withdrawal are mediated by the limbic system
The role of arginine vasopressin in the development of tolerance to ethanol in normal and Brattleboro rats
The effects of conditioning with amphetamine on the thermic effects of amphetamine and pentobarbital
Evidence for a role of conditioning in the development of tolerance to morphine-induced inhibition of gastrointestinal transit in rats
The effects of exposure to drug-related cues in detoxified opiate addicts: a theoretical review and some new data
What is presented, and what prevented, in cue exposure and response prevention with alcohol dependent subjects?
Withdrawal hyperalgesia after acute opioid physical dependence in nonaddicted humans: a preliminary study
Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for tolerance to continuous morphine administration into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray
The role of contextual cues on counterirritation in the development process of analgesic tolerance to morphine
Detection of the erect position in the freely-moving human: sensor characteristics, reliability, and validity
Beyond sweet taste: saccharin, sucrose, and polycose differ in their effects upon morphine-induced analgesia
Noncontingent drug exposure facilitates the development of contingent tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of ethanol and diazepam in kindled rats
Preexposure to drug administration context blocks the development of tolerance to sedative effects of diazepam
Estrous cyclicity and behavioral sensitization in female rats following repeated intravenous cocaine administration
Opioid-NMDA receptor interactions may clarify conditioned (associative) components of opioid analgesic tolerance
Pain facilitatory circuits in the mammalian central nervous system: their behavioral significance and role in morphine analgesic tolerance
Explicitly unpaired delivery of morphine and the test situation: extinction and retardation of tolerance to the suppressing effects of morphine on locomotor activity
Influence of intake of sweet solutions on the analgesic effect of a low dose of morphine in randomly bred rats
Associative morphine tolerance in the rat: examinations of compensatory responding and cross-tolerance with stress-induced analgesia
Analgesic effects of a specific pulsed magnetic field in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis: consequences of repeated exposures, relations to tolerance and cross-tolerance with DPDPE
Smoking produces a smaller increase in heart rate in the natural smoking environment than in the laboratory
Interdose interval effects on the development of contextual tolerance to nicotine's analgesic effects in rats (Rattus norvegicus)
Gustatory insular cortex lesions disrupt drug-induced, but not lithium chloride-induced, suppression of conditioned stimulus intake
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of the EEG effect of alfentanil in rats: assessment of rapid functional adaptation
A sensitization-homeostasis model of nicotine craving, withdrawal, and tolerance: integrating the clinical and basic science literature
Cue exposure in the treatment of drug dependence: the potential of a new method for preventing relapse
Development and reversal of contingent inefficacy and tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of carbamazepine
Participation of dorsal raphe nucleus in the behavioral alteration observed after discontinuation of chronic diazepam administration: possible neural circuitry involved
Impairment of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping responses (anticipatory nausea) following immune system stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) occurs in both LPS tolerant and LPS non-tolerant rats
The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, SR 21502, reduces cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking and heroin conditioned place preference in rats
Exposure to a context previously associated with nausea elicits conditioned gaping in rats: a model of anticipatory nausea
A comparison between spontaneous electroencephalographic activities induced by morphine and morphine-related environment in rats
Contingent tolerance to carbamazepine is associated with lowering of amygdala-kindled seizure thresholds
Analgesia produced by stimulation of limbic structures and its relation to epileptiform after-discharges
Conditioned fear-induced opiate analgesia: a competing motivational state theory of stress analgesia
Cholinergic overstimulation supports conditioned-facilitated startle but not conditioned hyperalgesia
Intermittent dosing prolongs tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine microinjection into the periaqueductal gray
Evidence for an intrinsic mechanism of antinociceptive tolerance within the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray of rats
A polyamine-deficient diet opposes hyperalgesia, tolerance and the increased anxiety-like behaviour associated with heroin withdrawal in rats
Withdrawal Symptoms and Nicotine Dependence Severity Predict Virtual Reality Craving in Cigarette-Deprived Smokers
Acute corticosterone increases conditioned spontaneous orofacial behaviors but fails to influence dose related LiCl-induced conditioned "gaping" responses in a rodent model of anticipatory nausea
Differential susceptibility of the PAG and RVM to tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the rat
Extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues in animal models: relevance to the treatment of addiction
Prolonged morphine self-administration and addiction liability. Evaluation of two theories in a bone marrow transplant unit
Withdrawal from chronic phencyclidine treatment induces long-lasting depression in brain reward function
Cognitive interference as a possible therapeutic strategy to prevent expression of benzodiazepine withdrawal
Age-dependent differences in the strength and persistence of psychostimulant-induced conditioned activity in rats: effects of a single environment-cocaine pairing
Antireward, compulsivity, and addiction: seminal contributions of Dr. Athina Markou to motivational dysregulation in addiction
Effects of ethanol on multiple fixed-interval fixed-ratio schedule performances: dynamic interactions at different fixed-ratio values
Dissociation of place preference and tolerance responses to sucrose using a dopamine antagonist in the planarian
The influence of contextual cue on antinociceptive tolerance and facilitation of memory with morphine
Context-Specific Tolerance and Pharmacological Changes in the Infralimbic Cortex-Nucleus Accumbens Shell Pathway Evoked by Ketamine.
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