Conserved and Divergent Modulation of Calcification in Atherosclerosis and Aortic Valve Disease by Tissue Extracellular Vesicles

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
M. C. BlaserElena Aikawa

Abstract

Background: Fewer than 50% of patients develop calcification of both atherosclerotic plaques and aortic valves, implying differential pathogenesis. While circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) act as biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases, tissue-entrapped EVs associate with early mineralization, but their contents, function, and contributions to disease remain unknown. Results: Global proteomics of human carotid artery endarterectomies and calcified aortic valves from a total of 27 donors revealed significant over-representation of proteins with vesicle-associated pathways/ontologies common to both diseases. We exploited enzymatic digestion, serial (ultra)centrifugation and OptiPrep density-gradient separation to isolate EV populations from diseased arteries and valves. Mass spectrometry found 22 EV marker proteins to be highly enriched in the four least-dense OptiPrep fractions while extracellular matrix proteins predominated in denser fractions, as confirmed by CD63 immunogold electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Proteomics and miRNA-sequencing of OptiPrep-enriched tissue EVs quantified 1,104 proteins and 123 miR cargoes linked to 5,182 target genes. Pathway networks of proteins and miR targets common to ...Continue Reading

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