Sep 15, 2007

Evolution of an arsenal: structural and functional diversification of the venom system in the advanced snakes (Caenophidia)

Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP
Bryan G FryJanette A Norman

Abstract

Venom is a key innovation underlying the evolution of advanced snakes (Caenophidia). Despite this, very little is known about venom system structural diversification, toxin recruitment event timings, or toxin molecular evolution. A multidisciplinary approach was used to examine the diversification of the venom system and associated toxins across the full range of the approximately 100 million-year-old advanced snake clade with a particular emphasis upon families that have not secondarily evolved a front-fanged venom system ( approximately 80% of the 2500 species). Analysis of cDNA libraries revealed complex venom transcriptomes containing multiple toxin types including three finger toxins, cobra venom factor, cysteine-rich secretory protein, hyaluronidase, kallikrein, kunitz, lectin, matrix metalloprotease, phospholipase A(2), snake venom metalloprotease/a disintegrin and metalloprotease, and waprin. High levels of sequence diversity were observed, including mutations in structural and functional residues, changes in cysteine spacing, and major deletions/truncations. Morphological analysis comprising gross dissection, histology, and magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated extensive modification of the venom system architec...Continue Reading

  • References47
  • Citations103

References

Mentioned in this Paper

Snake Venoms
Arsenal
Histology Procedure
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Toxin
Phospholipase A Activity
Phylogeny
Histology
Lectin Activity
Cysteine

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