Jun 27, 2019

Evolution of CRISPR towards accurate and efficient mammal genome engineering

BMB Reports
Seuk-Min RyuKyoungmi Kim

Abstract

The evolution of genome editing technology based on CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system has led to a paradigm shift in biological research. CRISPR/Cas9-guide RNA complexes enable rapid and efficient genome editing in mammalian cells. This system induces double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at target sites and most DNA breakages induce mutations as small insertions or deletions (indels) by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway. However, for more precise correction as knock-in or replacement of DNA base pairs, using the homology-directed repair (HDR) pathway is essential. Until now, many trials have greatly enhanced knock-in or substitution efficiency by increasing HDR efficiency, or newly developed methods such as Base Editors (BEs). However, accuracy remains unsatisfactory. In this review, we summarize studies to overcome the limitations of HDR using the CRISPR system and discuss future direction. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(8): 475-481].

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Mentioned in this Paper

Study
Base
Biochemical Pathway
Research
CRISPR-Cas Systems
Gene Deletion
GATA3 protein, human
Site
Knock-in
Chemical Substitution

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