Evolution of echocardiography in neonatal diagnosis
Acta Paediatrica. Supplement
J G Stevenson
In the late 1960's, Edler and Lundström introduced ¿ultrasoundcardiography¿ for the evaluation of congenital heart disease. Initial evaluations using A- and M-mode echocardiography produced non-invasive diagnosis of many defects, including specific complex malformations such as hypoplastic left heart, Ebstein's malformation, endocardial cushion defect and transposition, all with single crystal techniques. Normal values for dimensions related to patient size and indices of function developed at that time remain as components of contemporary examinations. Two-dimensional imaging technology has evolved from 20 channels on Bom's linear array to 128-channel systems currently providing detailed imaging of structures as small as neonatal coronary arteries. The contribution of Doppler techniques for qualitative evaluation of blood flow characteristics has been greatly augmented by both the quantitative Doppler methods for accurate assessment of pressure gradients and pulmonary pressure, and by the development of color Doppler display of intracardiac and intravascular flow. These contributions have come from centers worldwide, with many initial and ongoing contributions from Lund. The evolution of instruments, and of application, now pr...Continue Reading
Jul 19, 2013·Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : Official Publication of the American Society of Echocardiography·Catherine L WebbUNKNOWN American Society of Echocardiography Telemedicine Collaborators’ Group
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.