B-family DNA-directed DNA polymerases are DNA replication enzymes found in Eukaryota, Archaea, large DNA viruses, and in some, but not all, bacteria. Several polymerase domains are conserved among the B-family DNA polymerases from these organisms, suggesting that the B-family DNA polymerases evolved from a common ancestor. Eukaryotes retain at least three replicative B-family DNA polymerases, DNA polymerase α, δ, and ε, and one translesion B-family DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase ζ. Here, we present molecular evolutionary evidence that suggests DNA polymerase genes evolved through horizontal gene transfer between the viral and archaeal-eukaryotic lineages. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the B-family DNA polymerases from nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), eukaryotes, and archaea suggest that different NCLDV lineages such as Poxviridae and Mimiviridae were involved in the evolution of different DNA polymerases (pol-α-, δ-, ε-, and ζ-like genes) in archaeal-eukaryotic cell lineages, putatively through horizontal gene transfer. These results support existing theories that link the evolution of NCLDVs and the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus.
Evidence of independent gene duplications during the evolution of archaeal and eukaryotic family B DNA polymerases
Evolution of DNA polymerase families: evidences for multiple gene exchange between cellular and viral proteins
Evolution of DNA polymerases: an inactivated polymerase-exonuclease module in Pol epsilon and a chimeric origin of eukaryotic polymerases from two classes of archaeal ancestors.
The viral eukaryogenesis hypothesis: a key role for viruses in the emergence of eukaryotes from a prokaryotic world environment
New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0
Morphogenesis of mimivirus and its viral factories: an atomic force microscopy study of infected cells
Viral Outbreak in Corals Associated with an In Situ Bleaching Event: Atypical Herpes-Like Viruses and a New Megavirus Infecting Symbiodinium
Complete Genome Sequence of a New Megavirus Family Member Isolated from an Inland Water Lake for the First Time in India
POLD1: Central mediator of DNA replication and repair, and implication in cancer and other pathologies.
Carbon nanotubes as molecular transporters to study a new mechanism for molecular entry into the cell nucleus using actin polymerization force
Diversification of giant and large eukaryotic dsDNA viruses predated the origin of modern eukaryotes.
Morphological and Taxonomic Properties of Tokyovirus, the First Marseilleviridae Member Isolated from Japan
Fifteen Marseilleviruses Newly Isolated From Three Water Samples in Japan Reveal Local Diversity of Marseilleviridae
Medusavirus Ancestor in a Proto-Eukaryotic Cell: Updating the Hypothesis for the Viral Origin of the Nucleus
Coevolutionary and Phylogenetic Analysis of Mimiviral Replication Machinery Suggest the Cellular Origin of Mimiviruses.
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