PMID: 5917778Sep 16, 1966

Evolution of malate dehydrogenase in birds

G B Kitto, A C Wilson


Heart extracts from over 100 species of birds were subjected to starch-gel electrophoresis at pH 7. The "supernatant" form of malate dehydrogenase, an enzyme present in every extract, was then located on the gels by a specific staining method. The mobility of this enzyme shows very little interspecific variation. Nearly all birds tested have a supernatant malate dehydrogenase that moves as fast as the chicken enzyme. Those species with an enzyme of unusual mobility are of taxonomic interest. For example, hummingbirds and swifts, which are usually considered as two suborders of Apodiformes, are unique among the birds tested in having an enzyme that moves 63 percent as fast as the chicken enzyme. This finding appears to confirm the unity of the Apodiformes, an order whose unity has long been open to question. Similarly all families tested in the shorebird order (Charadriiformes) are unique in having an enzyme that moves 55 percent as fast as the chicken enzyme. The unity of this order was also previously open to question.


Jun 1, 1971·Biochemical Genetics·L M Karig, A C Wilson
Jan 1, 1974·Biochemical Genetics·R S HolmesW E Poole
Jan 1, 1967·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·H Ozaki, A H Whiteley
Jun 1, 1968·Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology·E J ThornberP B Scutt
Apr 15, 1973·Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. B, Comparative Biochemistry·T V WaehneldtV Neuhoff
Jan 1, 1982·Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. B, Comparative Biochemistry·M L Schwantes, A R Schwantes
Sep 1, 1974·Experimental Gerontology·B S Gandhi, M S Kanungo
Aug 1, 1972·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·M S Kanungo, B S Gandhi
Jan 1, 1977·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·N S YangJ G Scandalios
Jun 14, 1968·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·N O KAPLAN
Sep 19, 1972·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·M J PeakI P Ting
May 16, 1967·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·G B Kitto, R G Lewis
Aug 22, 1977·Journal of Theoretical Biology·A Feduccia
Apr 15, 1967·Nature·M E EppenbergerN O KAPLAN
Sep 1, 1982·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Charles F Aquadro, John C Avise

Related Concepts

Malate Dehydrogenase

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Pediculosis pubis

Pediculosis pubis is a disease caused by a parasitic insect known as Pthirus pubis, which infests human pubic hair, as well as other areas with hair including eye lashes. Here is the latest research.

Rh Isoimmunization

Rh isoimmunization is a potentially preventable condition that occasionally is associated with significant perinatal morbidity or mortality. Discover the latest research on Rh Isoimmunization here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells. It also follows CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generating genetic mutants as a means of understanding the effect of genetics on phenotype.

Enzyme Evolution

This feed focuses on molecular models of enzyme evolution and new approaches (such as adaptive laboratory evolution) to metabolic engineering of microorganisms. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Pharmacology of Proteinopathies

This feed focuses on the pharmacology of proteinopathies - diseases in which proteins abnormally aggregate (i.e. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, etc.). Discover the latest research in this field with this feed.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.