PMID: 38611May 1, 1979

Evolution of neuronal connecting mechanisms: electrical, mixed and chemical synapses

Zhurnal evoliutsionnoĭ biokhimii i fiziologii
A I Shapovalov

Abstract

Investigation of the mechanisms of junctional transmission in the isolated spinal cord in cyclostomes, amphibians, reptilia and mammals reveals the decrease in the number of electrical synapses during evolution from primitive to more advanced vertebrates. Electrical transmission is lacking in reptilian and mammalian cord. On the basis of these data, the analysis of the unitary EPSPs evoked in motoneurons of the lamprey and frog by intracellular stimulation of reticulospinal axons and primary afferent fibers and dendrodendritic interaction between motoneurons, a hypothesis is advanced that neurons of similar type may communicate through pure electrical junctions, whereas successive synaptic articulations between different functional groups of neurons are formed by mixed or chemical synapses. The cellular mechanisms controlling interneuronal communications are discussed.

Related Concepts

Vertebrates
Amphibians
Chemical Synapse
Malignant Neoplasm of Spinal Cord
Protoplasm
Resting Potentials
Salientia
Neurons
Synaptic Transmission
Neoplasm of Uncertain or Unknown Behavior of Spinal Cord

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Synapse Loss as Therapeutic Target in MS

As we age, the number of synapses present in the human brain starts to decline, but in neurodegenerative diseases this occurs at an accelerated rate. In MS, it has been shown that there is a reduction in synaptic density, which presents a potential target for treatment. Here is the latest research on synapse loss as a therapeutic target in MS.

Artificial Intelligence in Cardiac Imaging

Artificial intelligence (ai) techniques are increasingly applied to cardiovascular (cv) medicine in cardiac imaging analysis. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Social Learning

Social learning involves learning new behaviors through observation, imitation and modeling. Follow this feed to stay up to date on the latest research.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Single Cell Chromatin Profiling

Techniques like ATAC-seq and CUT&Tag have the potential to allow single cell profiling of chromatin accessibility, histones, and TFs. This will provide novel insight into cellular heterogeneity and cell states. Discover the latest research on single cell chromatin profiling here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.