Evolution of pathogen virulence: the role of variation in host phenotype

Proceedings. Biological Sciences
K S Pfennig

Abstract

Selection on pathogens tends to favour the evolution of growth and reproductive rates and a concomitant level of virulence (damage done to the host) that maximizes pathogen fitness. Yet, because hosts often pose varying selective environments to pathogens, one level of virulence may not be appropriate for all host types. Indeed, if a level of virulence confers high fitness to the pathogen in one host phenotype but low fitness in another host phenotype, alternative virulence strategies may be maintained in the pathogen population. Such strategies can occur either as polymorphism, where different strains of pathogen evolve specialized virulence strategies in different host phenotypes or as polyphenism, where pathogens facultatively express alternative virulence strategies depending on host phenotype. Polymorphism potentially leads to specialist pathogens capable of infecting a limited range of host phenotypes, whereas polyphenism potentially leads to generalist pathogens capable of infecting a wider range of hosts. Evaluating how variation among hosts affects virulence evolution can provide insight into pathogen diversity and is critical in determining how host pathogen interactions affect the phenotypic evolution of both hosts a...Continue Reading

References

Oct 24, 2008·Phytopathology·Soledad SacristánFernando García-Arenal
Aug 6, 2004·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Robert M SeymourKenth Gustafsson
Feb 21, 2002·Infection and Immunity·Kent B MartySteven R Blanke
May 4, 2004·The American Naturalist·Troy Day, Stephen R Proulx
Sep 26, 2013·Evolutionary Applications·Mónica BetancourtFernando García-Arenal
Jul 28, 2012·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Barbara Boldin, Eva Kisdi
Apr 22, 2010·The New Phytologist·Susan E MeyerSuzette Clement
Jan 13, 2006·Behavioural Processes·Fleur PontonFrédéric Thomas
Mar 13, 2014·Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases·Miguel Moreno-GarcíaHumberto Lanz-Mendoza
May 14, 2016·BMC Evolutionary Biology·Celeste C LindeRod Peakall
Dec 14, 2001·Nature·S GandonAndrew F Read
Jul 15, 2016·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·T Alex PerkinsGonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec
Mar 4, 2020·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Rashad EletrebyH Vincent Poor

Citations

Dec 22, 1992·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·S A Frank
Oct 22, 1983·Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character·R M May, R M Anderson
Feb 7, 1983·Journal of Theoretical Biology·H J Bremermann, J Pickering
Aug 22, 1995·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·R M May, Martin A Nowak
Jun 21, 1995·Journal of Theoretical Biology·Marc Lipsitch, Martin A Nowak
Nov 22, 1994·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·S A Frank
Jun 22, 1994·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·D H Clayton, D M Tompkins
Jan 22, 1994·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Martin A Nowak, R M May
Apr 26, 1994·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·S GuptaK P Day
Jan 1, 1994·Annals of Neurology·M E Weksler
Sep 22, 1995·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·S Gupta, A V Hill
Jun 22, 1996·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·S BonhoefferD Ebert
Mar 1, 1996·The Quarterly Review of Biology·S A Frank
Jan 1, 1997·Trends in Microbiology·Marc Lipsitch, E R Moxon
Jan 1, 1997·International Journal for Parasitology·C Combes
Jan 1, 1997·Parasitology·R Antia, Marc Lipsitch
Nov 20, 1998·Science·D Ebert
Apr 14, 1999·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·S VerhulstH K Parmentier
Aug 24, 1999·Immunological Investigations·J L RosenS M Viselli
Nov 11, 1999·Parasitology Today·R Poulin, C Combes
Jun 23, 2000·Nature·Curtis M Lively, M F Dybdahl
Aug 11, 2000·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·R R RegoesS Bonhoeffer
Mar 1, 1996·Parasitology Today·D Ebert, Edward Allen Herre
Jan 1, 1994·Parasitology Today·P Schmid-Hempel, J C Koella
Feb 1, 1996·Trends in Ecology & Evolution·D Ebert, W D Hamilton
Oct 1, 1998·Age·E D Bernstein, D M Murasko
Jun 1, 1991·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·J J BullW R Rice
Dec 1, 1989·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Curtis M Lively
Oct 1, 1993·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Marc TatarJames W Vaupel
Aug 1, 1995·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Marc LipsitchMartin A Nowak
Oct 1, 1996·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Marc LipsitchMartin A Nowak
Jun 1, 1999·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Robert J Knell
Jun 1, 1999·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Margaret J Mackinnon, Andrew F Read
Apr 1, 1998·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Louise H TaylorAndrew F Read
Oct 1, 1994·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·J J Bull

Related Concepts

Host-Parasite Interactions
Pathogenicity
Pathogenic Organism
Host-Pathogen Interactions
Virulence
Genetic Polymorphism
Phenotype Determination
Biological Evolution
Selection, Genetic
Variation (Genetics)

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Sexual Dimorphism in Neurodegeneration

There exist sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, multiple sclerosis is more common in women, whereas Parkinson’s disease is more common in men. Here is the latest research on sexual dimorphism in neurodegeneration

HLA Genetic Variation

HLA genetic variation has been found to confer risk for a wide variety of diseases. Identifying these associations and understanding their molecular mechanisms is ongoing and holds promise for the development of therapeutics. Find the latest research on HLA genetic variation here.

Super-resolution Microscopy

Super-resolution microscopy is the term commonly given to fluorescence microscopy techniques with resolutions that are not limited by the diffraction of light. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to super-resolution microscopy.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.

Brain Lower Grade Glioma

Low grade gliomas in the brain form from oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and are the slowest-growing glioma in adults. Discover the latest research on these brain tumors here.

CD4/CD8 Signaling

Cluster of differentiation 4 and 8 (CD8 and CD8) are glycoproteins founds on the surface of immune cells. Here is the latest research on their role in cell signaling pathways.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.