Dec 1, 1992

Evolution of the growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) family of peptides

Growth Regulation
R M Campbell, C G Scanes


1. The primordial GRF may have arisen quite early in evolutionary history, at or prior to (i.e. should immunoreactivity data be confirmed in invertebrates) the appearance of jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomates). A common evolutionary pathway using gene duplication may have been utilized to generate the GRF super-family of peptides. As most members of this peptide superfamily are produced in the gastrointestinal tract, the question is posed whether the GRF may have similar origins. 2. It is suggested that the GRF superfamily has two major branches: a) GRF; PRP/PACAP; VIP/PHI; secretin and b) Glucagon/GLP-1/GLP-2. GIP is likely to be a member of the glucagon branch. The two branches may be attributable to gene duplication encoding an ancestral molecule. These gene duplications are likely to have occurred prior to the evolution of vertebrates (conservatively 400-500 million years ago, and possibly 1 billion years ago). It is probable that peptides homologous to GRF, VIP and glucagon will be isolated from invertebrates. These invertebrate sequences will shed further light upon the evolution of this peptide superfamily. 3. Throughout the GRF superfamily, amphiphilic alpha-helical secondary structures represent preferred bioactive conf...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Ovarian Diseases
Biochemical Pathway
Glucagon (rDNA)
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
ZGLP1 wt Allele
Placenta Specimen
Both Ovaries

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