Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs) continue to account for high morbidity and mortality rates in the pediatric population. Whereas in the past, mortality rates were nearly 100%, recent developments in endovascular embolization and improvements in neonatal care have improved prognoses. It is now possible that some patients can achieve normal neurological development following embolization of the VGAM. Access to the lesion can be gained via transarterial or transvenous routes. In this paper the authors review the pathophysiological characteristics of VGAM and discuss the evolution of treatment options. A PubMed literature search was performed for vein of Galen malformation treatment options, beginning in the 1970s. A total of 22 papers were reviewed in full, and outcome data for 615 patients from 1983 to 2010 were compiled. Articles were reviewed if they focused primarily on the treatment of VGAM and reported outcomes for at least 5 treated patients. Of the 265 patient outcomes reported between 1983 and 2000, 200 received endovascular therapy. Of these patients 72% had a favorable outcome, and a 15% mortality rate was found. Microsurgery was found to have an 84.6% mortality rate. Furthermore, 76.7% of untreated patien...Continue Reading
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