Apr 10, 2020

NUDT21 links mitochondrial IPS-1 to RLR-containing stress granules and activates host antiviral defense

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
S. Aoyama-IshiwatariY. Gotoh

Abstract

Viral RNA in the cytoplasm of mammalian host cells is recognized by retinoic acid-inducible protein-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), which localize to cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs). Activated RLRs associate with the mitochondrial adaptor protein IPS-1, which activates antiviral host defense mechanisms including type I interferon (IFN) induction. It has remained unclear, however, how RLRs in SGs and IPS-1 in the mitochondrial outer membrane associate physically and engage in information transfer. Here we show that NUDT21, an RNA binding protein that regulates alternative transcript polyadenylation, physically associates with IPS-1 and mediates its localization to SGs in response to transfection with poly(I:C), a mimic of viral double-stranded RNA. We found that, despite its well-established function in the nucleus, a fraction of NUDT21 localizes to mitochondria in resting cells and becomes localized to SGs in response to poly(I:C) transfection. NUDT21 was also found to be required for efficient type I IFN induction in response to viral infection. Our results together indicate that NUDT21 links RLRs in SGs to mitochondrial IPS-1 and thereby activates host defense responses to viral infection.

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Mentioned in this Paper

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