Evolutionary origin of the amnioserosa in cyclorrhaphan flies correlates with spatial and temporal expression changes of zen

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ab Matteen RafiqiUrs Schmidt-Ott

Abstract

Higher cyclorrhaphan flies including Drosophila develop a single extraembryonic epithelium (amnioserosa), which closes the germband dorsally. In most other insects two extraembryonic epithelia, serosa and amnion, line the inner eggshell and the ventral germband, respectively. How the two extraembryonic epithelia evolved into one is unclear. Recent studies have shown that, in the flour beetle Tribolium and in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus, the homeobox gene zerknüllt (zen) controls the fusion of the amnion with the serosa before dorsal closure. To understand the origin of the amnioserosa in evolution, we examined the expression and function of zen in the extraembryonic tissue of lower Cyclorrhapha. We show that Megaselia abdita (Phoridae) and Episyrphus balteatus (Syrphidae) develop a serosa and a dorsal amnion, suggesting that a dorsal amnion preceded the origin of the amnioserosa in evolution. Using Krüppel (Kr) and pannier (pnr) homologues of Megaselia as markers for serosal and amniotic tissue, respectively, we show that after zen RNAi all extraembryonic tissue becomes indistinguishable from amniotic cells, like in Tribolium but unlike in Drosophila, in which zen controls all aspects of extraembryonic development. Compared wit...Continue Reading

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Citations

Jan 25, 2008·Development Genes and Evolution·Michael StauberUrs Schmidt-Ott
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Related Concepts

Structure of Amnion
Metazoa
Blastoderm
Diptera
Drosophila
Embryonic Structures, Nonmammalian
Mesothelium
Phylogeny
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Evolution, Molecular

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