Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genes
Glutamine synthetase (GS), an essential enzyme in ammonia assimilation and glutamine biosynthesis, has three distinctive types: GSI, GSII and GSIII. Genes for GSI have been found only in bacteria (eubacteria) and archaea (archaebacteria), while GSII genes only occur in eukaryotes and a few soil-dwelling bacteria. GSIII genes have been found in only a few bacterial species. Recently, it has been suggested that several lateral gene transfers of archaeal GSI genes to bacteria may have occurred. In order to study the evolution of GS, we cloned and sequenced GSI genes from two divergent archaeal species: the extreme thermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and the extreme halophile Haloferax volcanii. Our phylogenetic analysis, which included most available GS sequences, revealed two significant prokaryotic GSI subdivisions: GSI-alpha and GSI-beta. GSI-alpha-genes are found in the thermophilic bacterium, Thermotoga maritima, the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, and the Euryarchaeota (includes methanogens, halophiles, and some thermophiles). GSI-beta-type genes occur in all other bacteria. GSI-alpha- and GSI-beta-type genes also differ with respect to a specific 25-amino-acid insertion and adenylylation control of GS enzyme activity, both abse...Continue Reading
The sequences of heat shock protein 40 (DnaJ) homologs provide evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between the Deinococcus-thermus group and cyanobacteria
Molecular cloning and characterization of glutamine synthetase, a tegumental protein from Schistosoma japonicum.
Gene cloning, sequencing and enzymatic properties of glutamate synthase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus sp. KOD1
Glutamine synthetases of Corynebacterium glutamicum: transcriptional control and regulation of activity
Influence of nutrients and currents on the genomic composition of microbes across an upwelling mosaic.
Purification, characterization, and expression of multiple glutamine synthetases from Prevotella ruminicola 23.
The role of the C8 proton of ATP in the regulation of phosphoryl transfer within kinases and synthetases.
Molecular evolution of glutamine synthetase II: Phylogenetic evidence of a non-endosymbiotic gene transfer event early in plant evolution.
Glutamine synthetase sequence evolution in the mycobacteria and their use as molecular markers for Actinobacteria speciation.
Expression of glutamine synthetase in Tegillarca granosa (Bivalvia, Arcidae) hemocytes stimulated by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and lipopolysaccharides
Two transcriptional regulators GlnR and GlnRII are involved in regulation of nitrogen metabolism in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)
Unique mechanistic features of post-translational regulation of glutamine synthetase activity in Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 in response to nitrogen availability
A core of three amino acids at the carboxyl-terminal region of glutamine synthetase defines its regulation in cyanobacteria
Ammonium assimilation and nitrogen control in Corynebacterium glutamicum and its relatives: an example for new regulatory mechanisms in actinomycetes
Regulation of ammonium assimilation in Haloferax mediterranei: interaction between glutamine synthetase and two GlnK proteins
The fingerprint of chemosymbiosis: origin and preservation of isotopic biosignatures in the nonseep bivalve Loripes lacteus compared with Venerupis aurea
Sirtuin-dependent reversible lysine acetylation of glutamine synthetases reveals an autofeedback loop in nitrogen metabolism
Cloning, molecular characterization, and phylogeny of two evolutionary distinct glutamine synthetase isoforms in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae)
Characterization of an L-phosphinothricin resistant glutamine synthetase from Exiguobacterium sp. and its improvement
Phylogenetic analysis of 70 kD heat shock protein sequences suggests a chimeric origin for the eukaryotic cell nucleus
Cloning and expression of alpha-amylase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus woesei in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata
Genes of the N-methylglutamate pathway are essential for growth of Methylobacterium extorquens DM4 with monomethylamine
Differential ratio amplicons (Ramp ) for the evaluation of RNA integrity extracted from complex environmental samples
The comparative metabolism of the mollicutes (Mycoplasmas): the utility for taxonomic classification and the relationship of putative gene annotation and phylogeny to enzymatic function in the smallest free-living cells
Phylogenetic analyses of two "archaeal" genes in thermotoga maritima reveal multiple transfers between archaea and bacteria
Recent advances in genomic sequencing has led to the discovery of new strains of Archaea and shed light on their evolutionary history. Discover the latest research on Archaeogenetics here.