The human genome is highly organized in the three-dimensional nucleus. Chromosomes fold locally into topologically associating domains (TADs) defined by increased intra-domain chromatin contacts. TADs contribute to gene regulation by restricting chromatin interactions of regulatory sequences, such as enhancers, with their target genes. Disruption of TADs can result in altered gene expression and is associated to genetic diseases and cancers. However, it is not clear to which extent TAD regions are conserved in evolution and whether disruption of TADs by evolutionary rearrangements can alter gene expression. Here, we hypothesize that TADs represent essential functional units of genomes, which are stable against rearrangements during evolution. We investigate this using whole-genome alignments to identify evolutionary rearrangement breakpoints of different vertebrate species. Rearrangement breakpoints are strongly enriched at TAD boundaries and depleted within TADs across species. Furthermore, using gene expression data across many tissues in mouse and human, we show that genes within TADs have more conserved expression patterns. Disruption of TADs by evolutionary rearrangements is associated with changes in gene expression profi...Continue Reading
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Topologically associating domains and their role in the evolution of genome structure and function in Drosophila.
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Independence of chromatin conformation and gene regulation during Drosophila dorsoventral patterning.
The hierarchical folding dynamics of topologically associating domains are closely related to transcriptional abnormalities in cancers.
Cancer Epigenetics and Chromatin (Keystone)
Epigenetic changes are present and dysregulated in many cancers, including DNA methylation, non-coding RNA segments and post-translational protein modifications. The epigenetic changes may or may not provide advantages for the cancer cells. This feed focuses on chromatin and its role in cancer epigenetics please follow this feed to learn more.
Cancer Epigenetics Chromatin Complexes (Keystone)
Epigenetic changes are present and dysregulated in many cancers, including DNA methylation, non-coding RNA segments and post-translational protein modifications. The epigenetic changes may or may not provide advantages for the cancer cells. This feed focuses on chromatin complexes and their role in cancer epigenetics.