Nov 2, 2016

Exosomal non-coding RNAs: a promising cancer biomarker

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine : CCLM
Huan YangXu Zhang

Abstract

Novel and non-invasive biomarkers are urgently needed for early detection of cancer. Exosomes are nano-sized particles released by cells and contain various bioactive molecules including proteins, DNA, mRNAs, and non-coding RNAs. Increasing evidence suggests that exosomes play critical roles in tumorigenesis, tumor growth, metastasis, and therapy resistance. Exosomes could be readily accessible in nearly all the body fluids. The altered production of exosomes and aberrant expression of exosomal contents could reflect the pathological state of the body, indicating that exosomes and exosomal contents can be utilized as novel cancer biomarkers. Herein, we review the basic properties of exosomes, the functional roles of exosomes in cancer, and the methods of detecting exosomes and exosomal contents. In particular, we highlight the clinical values of exosomal non-coding RNAs in cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

Mentioned in this Paper

Exosomes
Biological Markers
RNA, Untranslated
Neoplasms
Tumor Markers
Cancer Diagnosis
Body Fluids
Pathology
Tumor Growth
Malignant Neoplasms

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