Expectations and blind spots for structural variation detection from short-read alignment and long-read assembly

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Xuefang ZhaoMichael E Talkowski

Abstract

Virtually all genome sequencing efforts in national biobanks, complex and Mendelian disease programs, and emerging clinical diagnostic approaches utilize short-reads (srWGS), which present constraints for genome-wide discovery of structural variants (SVs). Alternative long-read single molecule technologies (lrWGS) offer significant advantages for genome assembly and SV detection, while these technologies are currently cost prohibitive for large-scale disease studies and clinical diagnostics (~5-12X higher cost than comparable coverage srWGS). Moreover, only dozens of such genomes are currently publicly accessible by comparison to millions of srWGS genomes that have been commissioned for international initiatives. Given this ubiquitous reliance on srWGS in human genetics and genomics, we sought to characterize and quantify the properties of SVs accessible to both srWGS and lrWGS to establish benchmarks and expectations in ongoing medical and population genetic studies, and to project the added value of SVs uniquely accessible to each technology. In analyses of three trios with matched srWGS and lrWGS from the Human Genome Structural Variation Consortium (HGSVC), srWGS captured ~11,000 SVs per genome using reference-based algorit...Continue Reading

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