Aug 1, 1977

Experiences with transvenously implanted pacemaker electrodes with special remarks on the treatment of leads out of function (author's transl)

Zeitschrift für Kardiologie
C G SchmittF Köhler


From 1965 to 1976, implantations of 502 pacemaker electrodes were performed. In 59 patients the first lead had to be changed. In December 1976, 355 patients were under our control. At this time, 11.7 percent were no longer paced via their first lead. Dislocations of the lead, increased threshold, insulation defect, skin perforation of the lead, myocardial perforation, adaptor defects, fracture, infection, and loops of the electrode were the reasons. In cases of exit block alone, you should try to take a high output pacemaker. In cases of entrance block, a pacemaker with increased input-impedance will do its work. If those two kinds of treatment will fail, you may speak about a lead out of function. Considering extraction of the electrode, except in cases of infection, you should exercise restraint, for severe complications may result. An electrode out of function has to be protected against disappearing in a safe way. A synopsis of electrode complications including cause, therapy, and prevention is given.

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Mentioned in this Paper

Implantable Stimulation Electrodes
Electric Impedance
Sinoatrial Block
Thyroid Hormone Plasma Membrane Transport Defect
Artificial Cardiac Pacemaker
Specimen Type - Electrode
Tooth Fractures

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