PMID: 6399208Jun 1, 1984

Experimental studies into mechanisms of cardiac arrest

Archives of Emergency Medicine
D C Russell


Experimental studies have revealed that a wide variety of different pathophysiological mechanisms may induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) and cardiac arrest during acute myocardial ischaemia or infarction. Distinct phases of enhanced vulnerability (the amount of current required to stimulate ectopic activity in the heart following application of an extra stimulus) to VF follow coronary occlusion and correspond to 'pre-hospital', 'in-hospital' and 'out-of-hospital' periods of arrhythmogenesis. Electrophysiological evidence suggests very early (phase 1a) VF results from multiple re-entrant excitation within the ischaemic zone. Slowed and fragmented conduction and inhomogeneities in refractoriness rapidly develop which mapping studies show to occur in association with development of spatial inhomogeneities in residual blood flow distribution and metabolism. Onset of VF may be triggered by adrenergic mechanisms or influenced by peripheral metabolic responses. Automatic mechanisms (spontaneous pacemaker activity) may induce later VF or VF on reperfusion or trigger re-entry. Findings indicate no single therapeutic approach to be likely to protect against all forms of cardiac arrest.


Sep 1, 1971·The American Journal of Cardiology·B Surawicz
Jan 1, 1972·British Heart Journal·A ArmstrongS L Morrison
Jul 1, 1971·Investigative Radiology·C SnyderK Amplatz
Oct 1, 1968·Annals of Surgery·P A EbertD C Sabiston
Jan 1, 1982·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J L SwainE W Holmes


Jan 1, 1985·Molecular Aspects of Medicine·J H BottingM J Walker

Related Concepts

Coronary Heart Disease
Canis familiaris
Electrophysiology (Science)
Cardiac Arrest
Cardiac Conduction System
Norepinephrine Receptors
Ventricular Fibrillation

Related Feeds

Cardiac Conduction System

The cardiac conduction system is a specialized tract of myocardial cells responsible for maintaining normal cardiac rhythm. Discover the latest research on the cardiac conduction system here.


Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle, that can lead to muscular or electrical dysfunction of the heart. It is often an irreversible disease that is associated with a poor prognosis. There are different causes and classifications of cardiomyopathies. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to this disease.

Cardiac Electrophysiology

Cardiac electrophysiology is the study of electrical activities of the heart and includes the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac events. Find the latest research on cardiac electrophysiology here.


Arrhythmias are abnormalities in heart rhythms, which can be either too fast or too slow. They can result from abnormalities of the initiation of an impulse or impulse conduction or a combination of both. Here is the latest research on arrhythmias.