Exploration of Aberrant E3 Ligases Implicated in Alzheimer's Disease and Development of Chemical Tools to Modulate Their Function.

Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Frances M Potjewyd, Alison D Axtman

Abstract

The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) is responsible for the degradation of misfolded or aggregated proteins via a multistep ATP-dependent proteolytic mechanism. This process involves a cascade of ubiquitin (Ub) transfer steps from E1 to E2 to E3 ligase. The E3 ligase transfers Ub to a targeted protein that is brought to the proteasome for degradation. The inability of the UPS to remove misfolded or aggregated proteins due to UPS dysfunction is commonly observed in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). UPS dysfunction in AD drives disease pathology and is associated with the common hallmarks such as amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation, among others. E3 ligases are key members of the UPS machinery and dysfunction or changes in their expression can propagate other aberrant processes that accelerate AD pathology. The upregulation or downregulation of expression or activity of E3 ligases responsible for these processes results in changes in protein levels of E3 ligase substrates, many of which represent key proteins that propagate AD. A powerful way to better characterize UPS dysfunction in AD and the role of individual E3 ligases is via the use of high-quality chemical tools that bind a...Continue Reading

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