Expression and function of arginine-producing and consuming-enzymes in the kidney

Amino Acids
O Levillain

Abstract

The kidney plays a key role in arginine metabolism. Arginine production is controlled by argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) which metabolize citrulline and aspartate to arginine and fumarate whereas arginine consumption is dependent on arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (GAT), which mediates creatine and ornithine synthesis. Histological and biochemical techniques have been used to study the distribution and activity of these enzymes in anatomically dissected segments, in isolated fragments of tubules and in whole tissues. ASS and ASL mRNAs and proteins are expressed in the proximal tubule. Within this nephron segment, the proximal convoluted tubule has a higher arginine synthesis capacity than the proximal straight tubules. Furthermore, this arginine-synthesizing portion of the nephron matches perfectly with the site of citrulline reabsorption from the glomerular filtrate. The kidney itself can produce citrulline from methylated arginine, but this capacity is limited. Therefore, intestinal citrulline synthesis is required for renal arginine production. Although the proximal convoluted tubule also expresses a significant amount of GAT, only 10% of renal arginine synthesis is metabolized to gua...Continue Reading

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Citations

Aug 28, 2013·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Jiangning YangJohn Pernow
Oct 2, 2012·Nutrition·Senda BahriSouad Sfar
Apr 9, 2016·Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN·Svetlana NikolaevaDmitri Firsov
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May 1, 2012·Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism·Sharon Lh Ong, Judith A Whitworth
Jan 1, 2015·The Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research·Dong-Joo CheonSandra Orsulic

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