Human cocaine addicts show altered function within the basal ganglia and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and altered glutamate function within these areas is postulated to be critical for cocaine addiction. The present project utilized a highly valid animal model of cocaine addiction, to test whether excessive use of cocaine alters glutamate function within these brain areas. Rats were trained to lever-press for i.v. saline vehicle or cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) over seven 1-h daily sessions, after which, saline controls and half of cocaine self-administering animals (brief access condition) received 10 more 1-h daily sessions, whereas the remaining cocaine animals received 10 additional 6-h daily sessions (extended access condition). One, 14, or 60 days after the last self-administration session, animals were sacrificed. Tissue samples from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (N.Acc) core and shell, and mPFC were analyzed by immunoblotting for expression of Homer1b/c, Homer2a/b, mGluR1, mGluR5, NR2a, and NR2b subunits of the NMDA receptor. Brief and extended access to cocaine failed to alter protein levels within the VTA, and produced transient and similar changes in N.Acc protein expression, which were more...Continue Reading
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Different adaptations in AMPA receptor transmission in the nucleus accumbens after short vs long access cocaine self-administration regimens
Subregion-specific role of glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens on drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.
Extended access to cocaine self-administration results in reduced glutamate function within the medial prefrontal cortex.
Accumbens Homer2-mediated signaling: a factor contributing to mouse strain differences in alcohol drinking?
The metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor modulates extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking in mice
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Effect of chronic delivery of the Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone on incubation of heroin craving
Differential effects of cocaine access and withdrawal on glutamate type 1 transporter expression in rat nucleus accumbens core and shell.
Alterations in AMPA receptor subunits and TARPs in the rat nucleus accumbens related to the formation of Ca²⁺-permeable AMPA receptors during the incubation of cocaine craving
Dysregulated postsynaptic density and endocytic zone in the amygdala of human heroin and cocaine abusers
Cognitive effects of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands in the context of drug addiction.
Imaging glutamate homeostasis in cocaine addiction with the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positron emission tomography radiotracer [(11)C]ABP688 and magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Cocaine-elicited imbalances in ventromedial prefrontal cortex Homer1 versus Homer2 expression: implications for relapse
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On the positive and negative affective responses to cocaine and their relation to drug self-administration in rats
Down-regulation of Homer1b/c attenuates glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity through endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria pathways in rat cortical neurons.
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 within nucleus accumbens shell modulates environment-elicited cocaine conditioning expression
Behavioral and functional evidence of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 dysregulation in cocaine-escalated rats: factor in the transition to dependence.
Glutamatergic plasticity in medial prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area following extended-access cocaine self-administration.
Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration and yoked cocaine delivery dysregulates glutamatergic mGlu5 and NMDA receptors in the rat brain
Cannabinoid exposure in pubertal rats increases spontaneous ethanol consumption and NMDA receptor associated protein levels.
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Contributions of prolonged contingent and non-contingent cocaine exposure to escalation of cocaine intake and glutamatergic gene expression
Alternation in dopamine D2 -like and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptor density caused by differing housing conditions during abstinence from cocaine self-administration in rats
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.
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