Extracapsular penetration is a new prognostic factor in human hepatocellular carcinoma

The American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Tomohiro IguchiMasazumi Tsuneyoshi

Abstract

The fibrous capsule is a unique characteristic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and acts as a barricade preventing the spread of cancer cells. Infiltration to the capsule (fc-inf) is the invasive feature in HCC; however, there are no reports of a detailed investigation regarding fc-inf. We selected 88 HCCs of <or=5 cm in diameter, when considered together with both the single nodular and the single nodular with extranodular growth types. We classified the infiltrating pattern into 2 types: extracapsular (EC) infiltrating type (n=38), in which cancer cells infiltrated outside the capsule and touched the existing liver parenchyma, and intracapsular (IC) infiltrating type (n=50), in which the infiltrating cancer cells stayed inside the capsule. The distance of infiltration and the capsular thickness were measured and the ratio of capsular infiltration (CI index) was calculated. There were no clinicopathologic differences between the 2 types, but the capsular thickness of IC type was greater than that of EC type (P<0.0001). EC type showed a poorer outcome for the overall survival and the disease-free survival (P=0.0210 and P=0.0115, respectively) and EC type was an independent prognostic factor for a disease-free survival (P=0.015...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Microbial Anatomical Capsule Structure
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Liver Carcinoma
Neoplasms
Infiltration
Hepatocellular Carcinoma of the Mouse
HCCS gene
Liver Parenchyma
Tumor Cells, Malignant
Progression-Free Survival

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