Mar 21, 2020

Extracellular Vesicles Derived From Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) in Regenerative Medicine: Applications in Skin Wound Healing

Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Antonio Casado-DíazGabriel Dorado

Abstract

The cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EV) that may have an endosomal origin, or from evaginations of the plasma membrane. The former are usually called exosomes, with sizes ranging from 50 to 100 nm. These EV contain a lipid bilayer associated to membrane proteins. Molecules such as nucleic acids (DNA, mRNA, miRNA, lncRNA, etc.) and proteins may be stored inside. The EV composition depends on the producer cell type and its physiological conditions. Through them, the cells modify their microenvironment and the behavior of neighboring cells. That is accomplished by transferring factors that modulate different metabolic and signaling pathways. Due to their properties, EV can be applied as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in medicine. The mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have immunomodulatory properties and a high regenerative capacity. These features are linked to their paracrine activity and EV secretion. Therefore, research on exosomes produced by MSC has been intensified for use in cell-free regenerative medicine. In this area, the use of EV for the treatment of chronic skin ulcers (CSU) has been proposed. Such sores occur when normal healing does not resolve properly. That is usually due to excessive prolongation of the in...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Aging
Fibroblasts
Chronic Skin Ulcer
Immunomodulation
Cell Differentiation Process
Exosomes
Keratinocyte
Nucleic Acids
Wound Healing
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

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