Extracellular vesicles of bacteria as potential targets for immune interventions.

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yizhi PengMin Wang


Bacterial infection is one of the most common and serious diseases. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) expressed by bacterial cells during infection and their biological functions have been a growing field in recent years. The study of the immune interaction mechanism between EVs and bacteria has become more significant. EVs are released into the extracellular microenvironment during bacterial infection. EVs carry various lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other substances of host bacteria and participate in various physiological and pathological processes. EV-based vaccines against bacterial infection are also being evaluated. This review focuses on the biological characteristics of EVs, the interaction between EVs and the host immune system, and the potential of EVs as new vaccines. A deeper understanding of the interaction between EVs and the immune system informs on the biological function and heterogeneity of EVs. This knowledge also can facilitate the development and application of EVs and their potential as vaccines.


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