Oct 21, 2009

Face shape of unaffected parents with cleft affected offspring: combining three-dimensional surface imaging and geometric morphometrics

Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
Seth M WeinbergMary L Marazita

Abstract

Various lines of evidence suggest that face shape may be a predisposing factor for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P). In the present study, 3D surface imaging and statistical shape analysis were used to evaluate face shape differences between the unaffected (non-cleft) parents of individuals with CL / P and unrelated controls. Sixteen facial landmarks were collected from 3D captures of 80 unaffected parents and 80 matched controls. Prior to analysis, each unaffected parent was assigned to a subgroup on the basis of prior family history (positive or negative). A geometric morphometric approach was utilized to scale and superimpose the landmark coordinate data (Procrustes analysis), test for omnibus group differences in face shape, and uncover specific modes of shape variation capable of discriminating unaffected parents from controls. Significant disparity in face shape was observed between unaffected parents and controls (p < 0.01). Notably, these changes were specific to parents with a positive family history of CL/P. Shape changes associated with CL/P predisposition included marked flattening of the facial profile (midface retrusion), reduced upper facial height, increased lower facial height, and ex...Continue Reading

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References

Mentioned in this Paper

Family Health Status
Zygomatic Arch
Cleft Palate, Isolated
Properdin Deficiency, X-LINKED
Face
External Nose Structure
Stomach Neoplasms
Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate
Craniometry
Step-parent

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