PMID: 11444720Jul 11, 2001Paper

Facial expression of children receiving immunizations: a principal components analysis of the child facial coding system

The Clinical Journal of Pain
L M BreauG J Reid

Abstract

To identify the structure of facial reaction to procedural pain and to determine the subset of facial actions that best describe the response. Observational. Five rural and five urban physicians' offices. One hundred twenty-three children aged 4 to 5 years undergoing routine diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and polio immunization. The Child Facial Coding System, comprising 13 discrete facial actions, was used to code each second of five 10-second phases from videotape: baseline, preneedle, needle, postneedle, and posthandling. Parents and a technician provided visual analog scale ratings of children's pain. Children provided a self-report using a Faces Pain Scale, and parents and nurses rated the children's pain and anxiety using visual analog scales. A "pain face" similar to that reported in adults emerged with the onset of pain. Principal component analyses revealed the frequency and intensity of facial action during the needle phase could be represented by components reflecting pain sensation, a "brave face," and the children's expectations for pain. Children's Faces Pain Scale and adult visual analog scale ratings were best predicted by components reflecting pain sensation and expectations of high pain. These results provide...Continue Reading

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Citations

Dec 28, 2007·Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders·Rosemary L MessmerKenneth D Craig
Nov 21, 2007·Journal of Pediatric Psychology·Lindsey L CohenKaren E Weiss
Feb 11, 2004·The Clinical Journal of Pain·Rami NaderKenneth D Craig
Feb 22, 2005·The Clinical Journal of Pain·Kellie L Hadden, Carl L von Baeyer
Jul 1, 2011·Pain Management·Kenneth M Prkachin
Jul 2, 2014·TheScientificWorldJournal·Shaoping Zhu
Oct 9, 2004·Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing : Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses·Philip AngFrancisca P Dalisay
Jun 1, 2003·Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research·Lynn M Breau
Jun 16, 2012·Expert Review of Vaccines·Sang-Moo KangYeu-Chun Kim
Aug 30, 2012·Pain Management Nursing : Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses·Mamoona Arif-RahuYui Matsuda
Nov 6, 2010·Intensive & Critical Care Nursing : the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses·Mamoona Arif-Rahu, Mary Jo Grap
Apr 27, 2010·The Journal of Pain : Official Journal of the American Pain Society·Frank J SymonsJames W Bodfish
Mar 28, 2008·Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing : JSPN·Martin Schiavenato
Oct 17, 2002·Clinics in Perinatology·Kenneth D CraigRebecca R Pillai
Sep 8, 2009·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Pankaj Karande, Samir Mitragotri
May 9, 2014·The Clinical Journal of Pain·Julie ChangKenneth D Craig
Jan 1, 2010·Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering·Pankaj Karande, Samir Mitragotri
Oct 22, 2005·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Samir Mitragotri
Nov 14, 2019·CoDAS·Milena Domingos de Oliveira RodarteCarmen Gracinda Silvan Scochi
Sep 24, 2019·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Judith Kappesser
Feb 18, 2016·Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology·Sachin Manocha, Navneet Taneja
Sep 19, 2017·The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy·Zoe A MichaleffKate M Dunn
Sep 14, 2010·The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry·Sumer M Alaki
Jan 1, 2012·The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry·Amit A JainAutar Krishen Munshi
Jul 29, 2019·The Journal of Pain : Official Journal of the American Pain Society·Kai KarosJohan W S Vlaeyen

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