Factor Analysis of Ordinal Variables: A Comparison of Three Approaches

Multivariate Behavioral Research
K G Jöreskog, I Moustaki


Theory and methodology for exploratory factor analysis have been well developed for continuous variables. In practice, observed or measured variables are often ordinal. However, ordinality is most often ignored and numbers such as 1, 2, 3, 4, representing ordered categories, are treated as numbers having metric properties, a procedure which is incorrect in several ways. In this article we describe four approaches to factor analysis of ordinal variables which take proper account of ordinality and compare three of them with respect to parameter estimates and fit. The comparison is made both in terms of their relative methodological advantages and in terms of an empirical data example and two generated data examples. In particular, we discuss the issue of how to test the model and to measure model fit.


Oct 14, 2005·Psychological Methods·Jeffrey D Long
Apr 1, 2004·Psychological Methods·Roger E Millsap, Oi-Man Kwok
Sep 10, 2004·Psychological Methods·Paras D MehtaBrian R Flay
Jan 29, 2010·Multivariate Behavioral Research·Daniel A Sass, Thomas A Schmitt
Mar 30, 2012·Multivariate Behavioral Research·Roberta Varriale, Jeroen K Vermunt
Mar 30, 2012·Multivariate Behavioral Research·Chun-Ting LeeMichael C Edwards
Mar 31, 2010·Multivariate Behavioral Research·Lai-Fa Hung
May 7, 2010·Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology·Richard N JonesEdward R Marcantonio
May 11, 2011·Journal of Computational Biology : a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology·Wessel N van Wieringen, Mark A van de Wiel
Jun 6, 2015·Journal of Personality Assessment·Steven K HuprichJeremy J Albright
May 6, 2016·Frontiers in Psychology·M T BarendseF J Oort
Jul 1, 2014·Multivariate Behavioral Research·Guangjian Zhang
Jul 1, 2014·Multivariate Behavioral Research·Yang Liu, Alberto Maydeu-Olivares
Jan 1, 2014·Identity : the Journal of the Society for Research on Identity Formation·Yuko HommaSabrina T Wong
Aug 17, 2016·Journal of Traumatic Stress·Thomas J YagerBruce P Dohrenwend
Apr 1, 2007·Multivariate Behavioral Research·Alberto Maydeu-Olivares, Adolfo Hernández
Dec 1, 2006·Multivariate Behavioral Research·Albert Maydeu-OlivaresRoderick P McDonald
Jan 1, 2005·Multivariate Behavioral Research·Jee-Seon Kim
Jun 3, 2006·Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport·Meghan H McDonough, Peter R E Crocker
Apr 15, 2010·Social Work in Public Health·Myung Jin HwangKyung Eun Lim
May 14, 2010·The Journal of Psychology·Guylaine LandryChristian Vandenberghe
Mar 3, 2005·The Clinical Neuropsychologist·Eric Ecklund-JohnsonJerry J Sweet
Jul 1, 2013·Clinical Psychological Science : a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science·Bruce P DohrenwendBen G Adams
Aug 31, 2010·Journal of Health Psychology·Florence Cousson-GélieDarius Razavi
May 17, 2006·Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin·Marisela HuertaVicki J Magley
Dec 1, 2005·Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin·Aaron L WichmanRobert C MacCallum
May 4, 2011·Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology·Gary W LuckLisa Smallbone
Jul 16, 2008·The British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology·Silvia CagnoneVassilis Vasdekis
Nov 19, 2005·The British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology·Jens C Eickhoff, Yasuo Amemiya
Mar 20, 2008·International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research·E AntretterD Wasserman
May 27, 2017·The British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology·Ke-Hai YuanYing Cheng
Apr 12, 2014·The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research·Dail FieldsPaul M Roman
Jan 27, 2010·Psychological Reports·Tomas BonaviaJoan Boada
Jan 1, 2010·Research on Aging·Bettina KubicekJames M Raymo
Jan 28, 2018·Behavior Research Methods·Joshua N PritikinMichael C Neale
Feb 27, 2004·European Journal of Clinical Nutrition·F MessinaR Piccinelli
Dec 15, 2011·Nursing Research·Richard G SawatzkyPatricia Mirwaldt
Dec 5, 2018·The British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology·Siliang ZhangYang Liu

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Related Papers

Nederlands tijdschrift voor de psychologie en haar grensgebieden
E E Roskam
Quality of Life Research : an International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care and Rehabilitation
A F DonneauA Albert
Nederlands tijdschrift voor de psychologie en haar grensgebieden
E E Roskam
© 2022 Meta ULC. All rights reserved