PMID: 8130686Dec 1, 1993

Factor XIII: inherited and acquired deficiency

Blood Reviews
P G BoardK J Miloszewski

Abstract

Factor XIII (XIII), an enzyme found in plasma (present as a pro-enzyme), platelets and monocytes, is essential for normal haemostasis. It may also have a role to play in the processes of wound healing and tissue repair. Inherited XIII deficiency results in a life-long, severe bleeding diathesis which, if untreated, carries a very high risk of death in early life from intracranial bleeding. XIII is a zymogen requiring thrombin and calcium for activation. In plasma, XIII has two subunits: the 'a' subunit, which is the active enzyme, and the 'b' subunit which is a carrier protein. Activated XIII modifies the structure of clot by covalently crosslinking fibrin through an epsilon (gamma-glutamyl)lysine link. It also crosslinks other proteins, including fibronectin and alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor (alpha-2PI), into the clot through the same link. Clot modified by XIII is physically stronger, relatively more resistant to fibrinolysis and may be a more suitable medium for the ingrowth of fibroblasts. Inheritance of factor XIII is autosomal recessive. The majority of patients with the inherited defect show no XIII activity and absence of 'a' subunit protein in plasma, platelets and monocytes. At the molecular level, the defect is not a maj...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Enzyme Activation
Factor XIII A-Chain
Factor Xiii Deficiency
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Hemostatic Function
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