Factors affecting HLA expression: A review

International Journal of Immunogenetics
B Sean CareyAnthony Poles

Abstract

The detection and semiquantitative measurement of circulating human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-specific antibodies is essential for the management of patients before and after transplantation. In addition, the pretransplant cross-match to assess the reactivity of recipient HLA antibody against donor lymphocytes has long been the gold standard to prevent hyperacute rejection. Whilst both of these tests assume that recipient HLA-specific antibody is the only variable in the assessment of transplant risk, this is not the case. Transplant immunologists recognize that some HLA antigens are expressed at levels a magnitude lower than others (e.g., HLA-C, HLA-DQ), but within loci, and between different cell types there are many factors that influence HLA expression in both resting and activated cells. HLA is not usually expressed without the specific promoter proteins NLRC5, for HLA class I, and CIITA, for class II. The quantity of HLA protein production is then affected by factors including promoter region polymorphisms, alternative exon splice sites, methylation and microRNA-directed degradation. Different loci are influenced by multiple combinations of these control mechanisms making prediction of HLA regulation difficult, but an abili...Continue Reading

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Citations

Dec 24, 2019·International Journal of Immunogenetics·Daniel J WilksSimon P J Kay
Jan 26, 2020·HLA : Immune Response Genetics·B Sean CareyAnthony Poles
Feb 28, 2020·HLA : Immune Response Genetics·Wei ZhangFaming Zhu
Jan 11, 2020·Frontiers in Immunology·Henrieta PapúchováTamara Tilburgs
Oct 15, 2020·HLA : Immune Response Genetics·Jonathan VisentinJean-Luc Taupin
Dec 6, 2020·Neurology·Jantima TanboonIchizo Nishino

Related Concepts

Exons
HLA Antigens
HLA-C Antigens
HLA-DQ Antigens
Lymphocyte
Methylation
Transplantation
Promoter
Site
Evaluation

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