PMID: 10565137Nov 24, 1999Paper

Factors for the onset of and the exacerbation of tuberculosis. 5. The infection and prognosis of tuberculosis among patients with immunodeficiency, especially HIV-infected patients

Kekkaku : [Tuberculosis]
H Nagai

Abstract

The number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is gradually increasing in Japan, and the morbidity rate from tuberculosis in the Japanese people is high. Accordingly, the number of cases with both infections is considered to increase in the future. Our hospital has already encountered 22 cases of HIV associated tuberculosis. HIV infects mainly CD4-positive cells. The extreme decrease in the cell count results in serious cellular immunological disorder. CD4-positive cell disorder induces disorders of B lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophage functions. These destructive conditions show the state of immunodeficiency including macrophage that are most important for defense of acid-fast bacterial infection. Migration and activation of macrophages with cytokines derived from T cells are impaired to induce the following phenomena: hypoplasia of granuloma, failure of tubercle bacillus sppression, the spread to regional lymph nodes (hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes), and hematogenous dissemination. On this occasion, caseous necrosis and cavitation are unlikely to occur, and false-negative tuberculin reaction is often observed. The incidence of severe cases, which include miliary tuber...Continue Reading

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