In recent years, a number of studies have produced evidence to suggest that consuming carotenoids may provide a variety of health benefits including a reduced incidence of a number of cancers, reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, and improved eye health. Evolving evidence on the health benefits of several carotenoids has sparked interest in incorporating more carotenoids into functional food products. Unfortunately, the same structural attributes of carotenoids that are thought to impart health benefits also make these compounds highly susceptible to oxidation. Given the susceptibility of carotenoids to degradation, particularly once they have been extracted from biological tissues, it is important to understand the major mechanisms of oxidation in order to design delivery systems that protect these compounds when they are used as functional food ingredients. This article reviews current understanding of the oxidation mechanisms by which carotenoids are degraded, including pathways induced by heat, light, oxygen, acid, transition metal, or interactions with radical species. In addition, several carotenoid delivery systems are evaluated for their potential to decrease carotenoid degradation in functional food products.
Uptake of lycopene and its geometrical isomers is greater from heat-processed than from unprocessed tomato juice in humans
The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers
Variability of serum carotenoids in response to controlled diets containing six servings of fruits and vegetables per day
Kinetics of photobleaching of beta-carotene in chloroform and formation of transient carotenoid species absorbing in the near infrared
Biological activities of natural and synthetic carotenoids: induction of gap junctional communication and singlet oxygen quenching
Reactivity of beta-carotene towards peroxyl radicals studied by laser flash and steady-state photolysis
Antioxidant activity of carotenoids: an electron-spin resonance study on beta-carotene and lutein interaction with free radicals generated in a chemical system
Cis-lycopene is more bioavailable than trans-lycopene in vitro and in vivo in lymph-cannulated ferrets
One-electron reduction potentials of dietary carotenoid radical cations in aqueous micellar environments
Scavenging of acetylperoxyl radicals and quenching of triplet diacetyl by beta-carotene: mechanisms and kinetics
Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity
Lycopene Content of Tomato Products: Its Stability, Bioavailability and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties
The role of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in protecting against age-related macular degeneration: a review based on controversial evidence
Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial)
Carotenoid bioavailability is higher from salads ingested with full-fat than with fat-reduced salad dressings as measured with electrochemical detection
Assessment of lutein bioavailability from meals and a supplement using simulated digestion and caco-2 human intestinal cells
Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil
Characterisation of surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): influence of lecithin and nonionic emulsifier
First direct observation of reversible oxygen addition to a carotenoid-derived carbon-centered neutral radical
Chemical and sensory analysis of strawberry flavoured yogurt supplemented with an algae oil emulsion
Digestive Stability, micellarization, and uptake of beta-carotene isomers by Caco-2 human intestinal cells
Carotenoid absorption in humans consuming tomato sauces obtained from tangerine or high-beta-carotene varieties of tomatoes
Influence of particle size on lipid digestion and β-carotene bioaccessibility in emulsions and nanoemulsions
Carrot β-carotene degradation and isomerization kinetics during thermal processing in the presence of oil
Minor components in food oils: a critical review of their roles on lipid oxidation chemistry in bulk oils and emulsions
Nanoemulsion-based oral delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive components: nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals
Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Bulb Slices
Stability of carotenoids, total phenolics and in vitro antioxidant capacity in the thermal processing of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars grown in Brazil
Effects of blanching, acidification, or addition of EDTA on vitamin C and β-carotene stability during mango purée preparation
High carotenoid bioaccessibility through linseed oil nanoemulsions with enhanced physical and oxidative stability
The effect of various antioxidants on the degradation of O/W microemulsions containing esterified astaxanthins from Haematococcus pluvialis
Thermal Degradation and Isomerization of β-Carotene in Oil-in-Water Nanoemulsions Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants
Concentrating immunoprotective phytoactive compounds from fruits and vegetables into shelf-stable protein-rich ingredients
Physical Stability, Autoxidation, and Photosensitized Oxidation of ω-3 Oils in Nanoemulsions Prepared with Natural and Synthetic Surfactants
Fatty acids attached to all-trans-astaxanthin alter its cis-trans equilibrium, and consequently its stability, upon light-accelerated autoxidation
Effects of physicochemical properties of carotenoids on their bioaccessibility, intestinal cell uptake, and blood and tissue concentrations
Lutein-enriched emulsion-based delivery systems: Influence of pH and temperature on physical and chemical stability
Nutraceutical nanoemulsions: influence of carrier oil composition (digestible versus indigestible oil) on β-carotene bioavailability
Intestine-Specific Delivery of Hydrophobic Bioactives from Oxidized Starch Microspheres with an Enhanced Stability
Crystals and crystallization in oil-in-water emulsions: implications for emulsion-based delivery systems
Nanoscale Nutrient Delivery Systems for Food Applications: Improving Bioactive Dispersibility, Stability, and Bioavailability
Comparative study of β-carotene and microencapsulated β-carotene: evaluation of their genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects
Preliminary UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS screening of light-accelerated autoxidation products of the tetrapyrrole biliverdin
Effect of kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) pericarp on natural killer cell activity in vitro and in vivo
A comprehensive overview on the micro- and nano-technological encapsulation advances for enhancing the chemical stability and bioavailability of carotenoids
Response surface methodology toward the optimization of high-energy carotenoid extraction from Aristeus antennatus shrimp
Iron-induced oxidation of (all-E)-β-carotene under model gastric conditions: kinetics, products, and mechanism
Modulating β-carotene bioaccessibility by controlling oil composition and concentration in edible nanoemulsions
Chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions in orange juice and skimmed milk as model food systems
Influence of pH, metal chelator, free radical scavenger and interfacial characteristics on the oxidative stability of β-carotene in conjugated whey protein-pectin stabilised emulsion
Thermal and UV stability of β-carotene dissolved in peppermint oil microemulsified by sunflower lecithin and Tween 20 blend
Inhibition of β-carotene degradation in oil-in-water nanoemulsions: influence of oil-soluble and water-soluble antioxidants
The Nutraceutical Bioavailability Classification Scheme: Classifying Nutraceuticals According to Factors Limiting their Oral Bioavailability
Standardization of Nanoparticle Characterization: Methods for Testing Properties, Stability, and Functionality of Edible Nanoparticles
Red pepper (Capsicum annuum) carotenoids as a source of natural food colors: analysis and stability-a review
Retention of provitamin a carotenoids in staple crops targeted for biofortification in Africa: cassava, maize and sweet potato
Suitability of Different Food Grade Materials for the Encapsulation of Some Functional Foods Well Reported for Their Advantages and Susceptibility
Role of continuous phase protein, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and carrier oil on β-carotene degradation in oil-in-water emulsions
Natural emulsifiers - Biosurfactants, phospholipids, biopolymers, and colloidal particles: Molecular and physicochemical basis of functional performance
A fast and sensitive method for the separation of carotenoids using ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry
The Influence of Maltodextrin on the Physicochemical Properties and Stabilization of Beta-carotene Emulsions
Detection of herbicide effects on pigment composition and PSII photochemistry in Helianthus annuus by Raman spectroscopy and chlorophyll a fluorescence
Identification of line-specific strategies for improving carotenoid production in synthetic maize through data-driven mathematical modeling
Blue-violet light irradiation dose dependently decreases carotenoids in human skin, which indicates the generation of free radicals
Applications of computational chemistry to the study of the antiradical activity of carotenoids: A review
Irradiance and Temperature Influence the Bactericidal Effect of 460-Nanometer Light-Emitting Diodes on Salmonella in Orange Juice
Natural colorants: Pigment stability and extraction yield enhancement via utilization of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods
Encapsulation of Beta-carotene in Lipid Microparticles Stabilized with Hydrolyzed Soy Protein Isolate: Production Parameters, Alpha-tocopherol Coencapsulation and Stability Under Stress Conditions
Host-related factors explaining interindividual variability of carotenoid bioavailability and tissue concentrations in humans
The influence of flaxseed gum on the microrheological properties and physicochemical stability of whey protein stabilized β-carotene emulsions
Development of β-Carotene-Loaded Organogel-Based Nanoemulsion with Improved In Vitro and In Vivo Bioaccessibility
Vegetable relishes, high in β-carotene, increase the iron, zinc and β-carotene nutritive values from cereal porridges
Physicochemical Properties and Chemical Stability of β-Carotene Bilayer Emulsion Coated with Bovine Serum Albumin and Arabic Gum Compared to Monolayer Emulsions
The development and release of maize fortified with provitamin A carotenoids in developing countries
Complexes of lutein with bovine and caprine caseins and their impact on lutein chemical stability in emulsion systems: Effect of arabinogalactan
Consumption of carotenoids not increased by bacterial infection in brown trout embryos (Salmo trutta)
Pro-vitamin A carotenoids stability and bioaccessibility from elite selection of biofortified cassava roots (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) processed to traditional flours and porridges
Increased dietary protein-to-lipid ratio improves survival during naturally occurring pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L
Influence of Oxygen-Containing Sulfur Flavor Molecules on the Stability of β-Carotene under UVA Irradiation
Thermal stability and oral absorbability of astaxanthin esters from Haematococcus pluvialis in Balb/c mice
Controlled Release of Peppermint Oil from Paraffin-Coated Activated Carbon Contained in Sachets to Inhibit Mold Growth During Long Term Storage of Brown Rice
Synthetic 9-cis-beta-carotene inhibits photoreceptor degeneration in cultures of eye cups from rpe65rd12 mouse model of retinoid cycle defect
Microbial communities of the Mediterranean rocky shore: ecology and biotechnological potential of the sea-land transition
Effects of three cooking methods on content changes and absorption efficiencies of carotenoids in maize
Supramolecular Carotenoid Complexes of Enhanced Solubility and Stability-The Way of Bioavailability Improvement
Micro- and nano-encapsulation of β-carotene in zein protein: size-dependent release and absorption behavior
Nanostructured Lipid-Based Delivery Systems as a Strategy to Increase Functionality of Bioactive Compounds
Impact of Different Pasteurization Techniques and Subsequent Ultrasonication on the In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Carotenoids in Valencia Orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) Juice
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography analysis of all-trans-, 9-cis-, and 13-cis-astaxanthin in raw extracts from Phaffia rhodozyma.
Elaboration and characterization of barley protein nanoparticles as an oral delivery system for lipophilic bioactive compounds
Physicochemical stability, antioxidant properties and bioaccessibility of β-carotene in orange oil-in-water beverage emulsions: influence of carrier oil types
Geographical discrimination of palm oils (Elaeis guineensis ) using quality characteristics and UV-visible spectroscopy
Effect of alginate coating on the physico-chemical and microbial quality of pansies (Viola × wittrockiana ) during storage
Anti-inflammatory Role of Carotenoids in Endothelial Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord of Women Affected by Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Green Chemistry Extractions of Carotenoids from Daucus carota L.-Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Enzyme-Assisted Methods
Neurogenesis From Neural Crest Cells: Molecular Mechanisms in the Formation of Cranial Nerves and Ganglia
Elevated vitamin E content improves all-trans β-carotene accumulation and stability in biofortified sorghum
α-Carotene and β-Carotene Content in Raw and Cooked Pulp of Three Mature Stage Winter Squash "Type Butternut"
Establishment of an Arabidopsis callus system to study the interrelations of biosynthesis, degradation and accumulation of carotenoids
The Effect of Substances of Plant Origin on the Thermal and Thermo-Oxidative Ageing of Aliphatic Polyesters (PLA, PHA)
Nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic nutraceuticals: strategies for improving their formulation, stability, functionality and bioavailability
Physicochemical and Microstructural Properties of Polymerized Whey Protein Encapsulated 3,3'-Diindolylmethane Nanoparticles
Stabilization of Crystalline Carotenoids in Carrot Concentrate Powders: Effects of Drying Technology, Carrier Material, and Antioxidants
Nutritional and Physicochemical Quality of Vacuum-Fried Mango Chips Is Affected by Ripening Stage, Frying Temperature, and Time
Simultaneous LC/MS Analysis of Carotenoids and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Costa Rican Avocados (Persea americana Mill.)
Carotenoids in Cereal Food Crops: Composition and Retention throughout Grain Storage and Food Processing
Gliadin Nanoparticles Pickering Emulgels for β-Carotene Delivery: Effect of Particle Concentration on the Stability and Bioaccessibility.
Improving the Stability of Lycopene from Chemical Degradation in Model Beverage Emulsions: Impact of Hydrophilic Group Size of Emulsifier and Antioxidant Polarity
Novel Technologies Based on Supercritical Fluids for the Encapsulation of Food Grade Bioactive Compounds
Low expression of carotenoids cleavage dioxygenase 1 (ccd1) gene improves the retention of provitamin-A in maize grains during storage.
Fucoxanthin activities motivate its nano/micro-encapsulation for food or nutraceutical application: a review.
Influence of lipid nanoparticle physical state on β-carotene stability kinetics under different environmental conditions.
Lipid nanoparticles with fats or oils containing β-carotene: Storage stability and in vitro digestibility kinetics
Chitosan-sodium alginate-fatty acid nanocarrier system: Lutein bioavailability, absorption pharmacokinetics in diabetic rat and protection of retinal cells against H2O2 induced oxidative stress in vitro.
Formation of a novel coating material containing lutein and zeaxanthin via a Maillard reaction between bovine serum albumin and fucoidan.
Anti-Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Activities of Monoterpene Hydroxy Lactones Isolated from the Marine Microalga Tisochrysis Lutea.
Effect of temperature and pH on the encapsulation and release of β-carotene from octenylsuccinated oat β-glucan micelles
Utilization of Nanotechnology to Improve the Handling, Storage and Biocompatibility of Bioactive Lipids in Food Applications.
Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of a Newly Designed Nutraceutical Self-Nanoemulsifying Self-Nanosuspension for Protection and Treatment of Cisplatin Induced Testicular Toxicity in Male Rats.
Comparative Encapsulation Efficiency of Lutein in Micelles Synthesized via Batch and High Throughput Methods
Cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) extract from a by-product of juice processing: assessment of its toxicity, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities.
Delivery by Design (DbD): A Standardized Approach to the Development of Efficacious Nanoparticle- and Microparticle-Based Delivery Systems
Advances in nanoparticle and microparticle delivery systems for increasing the dispersibility, stability, and bioactivity of phytochemicals
Extraction optimization by using response surface methodology and purification of yellow pigment from Gardenia jasminoides var. radicans Makikno.
β-carotene Rescues Busulfan Disrupted Spermatogenesis Through Elevation in Testicular Antioxidant Capability.
Fabrication of β-carotene nanoemulsion-based delivery systems using dual-channel microfluidization: Physical and chemical stability
Influence of Harvest Date and Postharvest Treatment on Carotenoid and Flavonoid Composition in French Marigold Flowers.
Carotenoids: Considerations for Their Use in Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals, Nutricosmetics, Supplements, Botanicals, and Novel Foods in the Context of Sustainability, Circular Economy, and Climate Change.
Lutein-enriched emulsion-based delivery systems: Influence of emulsifiers and antioxidants on physical and chemical stability
Chitosan hydrochloride/carboxymethyl starch complex nanogels stabilized Pickering emulsions for oral delivery of β-carotene: Protection effect and in vitro digestion study
Recent Progress in Discovering the Role of Carotenoids and Their Metabolites in Prostatic Physiology and Pathology with a Focus on Prostate Cancer-A Review-Part I: Molecular Mechanisms of Carotenoid Action.
Enhancement of the antioxidant activity and stability of β-carotene using amphiphilic chitosan/nucleic acid polyplexes
Natural Products in the Prevention of Metabolic Diseases: Lessons Learned from the 20th KAST Frontier Scientists Workshop.
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