Nov 7, 2019

False-Positive Results for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy

Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jocelyn R HauserYi-Wei Tang


Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy has been a major advancement in cancer therapeutics. Reprogramming of T cells is achieved by using gammaretroviral or lentiviral vectors, which may interfere with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Here, we describe three clinical scenarios in which CAR T cell immunotherapy interfered with HIV-1 testing, including (i) routine infectious disease screening prior to stem cell transplantation in a 16-year-old female with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, post CAR T cell treatment; (ii) routine infectious disease screening prior to second CAR T cell collection in a 65-year-old male with diffuse large B cell lymphoma who failed initial CAR T cell treatment; and (iii) routine infectious risk assessment following an occupational health exposure from a 58-year-old male with multiple myeloma, who received CAR T cell treatment. In each case, patients initially tested negative by the "fourth-generation" HIV-1 screening enzyme immunoassay (targeting the p24 antigen and anti-HIV-1 antibodies), but positive by the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test v2.0 (targeting gag and the long terminal repeat [LTR]). These samples subsequ...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Long Terminal Repeat
Cell Therapy
Stem Cell Transplant
Cellular Reprogramming
Cancer Treatment
Precursor B-cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Sodium Channel Protein Type 1 Subunit Alpha
Screening Generic
Viral Vector

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