PMID: 7155803Dec 1, 1982

Fast bicarbonate-chloride exchange between brain cells and brain extracellular fluid in respiratory acidosis

Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology
H R Ahmad, H H Loeschcke


The extracellular pH, PCO2, and [Cl-] at the surface of the brain cortex, expiratory PCO2 and arterial blood pressure were continuously recorded in anaesthetized and artificially ventilated cats. The observations from such a preparation were: 1. In response to a nearly step increase in end-tidal PCO2, the brain ECF pH, PCO2, [Cl-] and calculated [HCO-3] changed in the form of a nearly mono-exponential time function after a delay of 5-7 s. 2. The time constants of the changes in the extracellular pH, PCO2, [Cl-] and [HCO-3] were in the range of 30-40 s. 3. The extracellular [HCO-3] increased markedly at an initial rate of 4.22 mmol.1(-1) . min-1 after 36 s. 4. This increase occurred almost simultaneously with a decrease in the extracellular [Cl-]. An [HCO-3]-[Cl-] exchange ratio was determined which very closely approached one. It is concluded that the brain extracellular bicarbonate concentration in respiratory acidosis increases because the H+ formed from the hydrated CO2 reacts with the intracellular buffers of brain cells, mainly glial cells, and HCO-3 inside the cell is formed and exchanged for Cl- outside the cell similar to the HCO-3/Cl- exchange which occurs between red cells and blood plasma during CO2 loading. The desc...Continue Reading


Dec 1, 1982·Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology·H R Ahmad, H H Loeschcke
Feb 1, 1990·Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology·L J TeppemaM Demedts
Dec 1, 1984·Respiration Physiology·J P KileyD E Millhorn
Feb 1, 1984·Respiration Physiology·D E MillhornJ P Kiley
Oct 1, 1984·Respiration Physiology·S Javaheri, J Weyne
Jun 13, 2006·High Altitude Medicine & Biology·Fabiola León-Velarde, Jean-Paul Richalet
Jul 8, 2008·Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology·Maria Rivera-ChFabiola León-Velarde
Nov 5, 2004·American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology·Robert W PutnamNicola A Ritucci


Jan 1, 1976·Journal of Applied Physiology·D G Davies
Jan 1, 1978·Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology·H R AhmadH H Woidtke
Aug 1, 1978·Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology·A LuttmannH H Loeschcke
Jan 1, 1978·Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology·E E Nattie, L Romer
Jul 1, 1968·Archives internationales de physiologie et de biochimie·J WeyneI Leusen
Jan 1, 1973·Journal of Applied Physiology·H L Borison, L E McCarthy
Apr 1, 1973·Journal of Applied Physiology·H KazemiD C Shannon
May 24, 1974·Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology·T Middendorf, H H Loeschcke
Oct 1, 1967·Physiological Reviews·T H Maren
Apr 1, 1966·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·B K Siesjö, U Pontén
Mar 1, 1971·Life Sciences. Pt. 1: Physiology and Pharmacology·J L PannierI Leusen
Jan 1, 1969·Acta Neurologica Scandinavica·L Granholm, U Pontén
Dec 1, 1965·The American Journal of Physiology·A Roos
Jan 1, 1980·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·J O WiethJ Funder
Dec 1, 1982·Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology·H R Ahmad, H H Loeschcke
Jan 1, 1956·Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology·H H Loeschcke
Jan 1, 1958·The American Journal of Physiology·D A BRODIE, D M WOODBURY
Aug 1, 1958·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·G NICHOLS
Nov 1, 1960·Anesthesiology·C J LAMBERTSEN
Jul 1, 1961·Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry·A van HEIJSTA H MAAS
Jul 1, 1961·Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry·J A SCHNEIDERD Y HSIA
Sep 1, 1962·Experimental Neurology·A KOCHB L NEWMAN
Sep 1, 1963·The American Journal of Physiology·H KAZEMI, J C MITHOEFER
Dec 1, 1949·Journal of Cellular Physiology·G MARMONT

Related Concepts

Chloride Ion Level
Cortex Bone Disorders
Adrenal Cortex Diseases
Expiration, Function
Hyrex Brand of Dimenhydrinate
Extracellular Space

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Sexual Dimorphism in Neurodegeneration

There exist sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, multiple sclerosis is more common in women, whereas Parkinson’s disease is more common in men. Here is the latest research on sexual dimorphism in neurodegeneration

HLA Genetic Variation

HLA genetic variation has been found to confer risk for a wide variety of diseases. Identifying these associations and understanding their molecular mechanisms is ongoing and holds promise for the development of therapeutics. Find the latest research on HLA genetic variation here.

Super-resolution Microscopy

Super-resolution microscopy is the term commonly given to fluorescence microscopy techniques with resolutions that are not limited by the diffraction of light. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to super-resolution microscopy.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.

Brain Lower Grade Glioma

Low grade gliomas in the brain form from oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and are the slowest-growing glioma in adults. Discover the latest research on these brain tumors here.

CD4/CD8 Signaling

Cluster of differentiation 4 and 8 (CD8 and CD8) are glycoproteins founds on the surface of immune cells. Here is the latest research on their role in cell signaling pathways.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.