PMID: 7090887Jan 1, 1982Paper

Feedback versus information concerning carbon monoxide as an early intervention strategy in adolescent smoking

W B Hansen, R I Evans


The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of several programs using feedback about carbon monoxide (CO) as strategies for deterring experimentation with cigarettes in sixth-grade children. All experimental subjects viewed a film depicting elevated CO levels in smokers' breath. Subjects in three conditions then viewed a live demonstration of the detection process using smoking and non-smoking adult subjects, followed by personal monitoring with either immediate, delayed or withheld feedback. An additional group viewed only the film and the live demonstration, and one group viewed only the film. Compared to no-treatment controls, the only program to reduce experimentation with cigarettes was the information-only program. Contrary to what was predicted, several programs, including those using immediate and withheld feedback had increases in rates of experimentation. For young adolescent populations, the use of simple information about imminent consequences of smoking programs is advocated.

Related Concepts

Carbon Monoxide
Child Behavior
Psychology, Infant
Feedback - System Communication
Health Education
Cigar smoker

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