Female age in ART: when to stop?

Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
F J Broekmans, E R Klinkert


With increasing age the probability of ongoing pregnancy established by the use of assisted reproduction technology (ART) decreases. As a result the question arises whether age limits for the application of ART should be established. From a literature review and ongoing research data it appears that the costs per child born greatly increase after the age of 40 for both intrauterine insemination with mild ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilisation treatment, while in cases of 44 and over, prognosis is flat zero. The willingness to pay for extra costs will greatly determine whether and at what age strict limits should be applied. Fortunately, predictive factors for success, like the antral follicle count, may enable the identification of women over 40 and under 44 that still have favourable prospects, thereby decreasing the necessary costs per childbirth and allowing couples into ART programs that are often denied based solely on female age.


Aug 1, 1992·International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics : the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics·M MilnerR F Harrison
Aug 1, 1992·Human Reproduction·G Haan, R van Steen
Jun 6, 1992·BMJ : British Medical Journal·M G HullA McDermott
Jul 1, 1991·Human Reproduction·G HaanN Naaktgeboren
Jan 1, 1990·Human Reproduction·C PietteA Spira
Jun 1, 1987·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·M J BrassilD W MacDonald
Sep 1, 1987·American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology·D K Lehmann, J Chism
Nov 1, 1994·Human Reproduction·S M PloskerP Amato
Mar 1, 1995·Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica·M GranbergL Hamberger
Jan 1, 1994·Fertility and Sterility·J M EimersJ D Habbema
Oct 1, 1995·Human Reproduction·F Comhaire
Feb 1, 1996·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·S MichalasD Aravantinos
Nov 23, 1996·Lancet·A TempletonW Parslow
Nov 1, 1996·Human Reproduction Update·S F Marcus, P R Brinsden
May 1, 1997·Fertility and Sterility·B J Van VoorhisF K Chapler
Mar 3, 1998·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·A BongainJ Y Gillet
Jan 1, 1999·Maturitas·C B Lambalk, C H de Koning
Apr 30, 1999·Human Reproduction·S Nuojua-HuttunenH Martikainen
Jul 10, 1999·Gynecological Endocrinology : the Official Journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology·I Bar-HavaZ Ben-Rafael
Nov 5, 1999·Preventive Medicine·H S ScholzE Petru

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Oct 12, 2011·Human Reproduction Update·J F OudendijkS L Broer
Dec 25, 2007·BMC Health Services Research·Reija KlemettiElina Hemminki
Dec 25, 2009·Reproductive Biomedicine Online·J A CastillaB Coroleu
Nov 17, 2009·Reproductive Biomedicine Online·Ariel HourvitzJacob Levron
Mar 20, 2010·Reproductive Biomedicine Online·Göran PetterssonJoan-Carles Arce
Oct 4, 2005·Human Reproduction Update·L J A M JacobsH J M Smeets

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.