Of 466 fetuses who underwent cardiac ultrasound examination with cross-sectional and M mode echocardiography and pulsed Doppler ultrasound and in whom we were able to follow the natural history, 12 were found to have atrioventricular valve insufficiency and nonimmune hydrops. Eleven fetuses (all of whom had structural heart disease) died either in utero or during the early postnatal period. In the one surviving hydropic fetus with supraventricular tachyarrhythmia and atrioventricular valve regurgitation but without structural heart disease, all the abnormalities disappeared on treatment with digoxin and verapamil. Seven fetuses who had atrioventricular valve insufficiency but did not develop nonimmune hydrops all survived pregnancy and the early neonatal period. The syndrome of atrioventricular valve insufficiency, nonimmune hydrops, and structural heart disease has a poor prognosis. The hydrops in this instance reflects fetal cardiac failure related to venous hypertension and low colloid oncotic pressure.
Fetal echocardiography. A tool for evaluation of in utero cardiac arrhythmias and monitoring of in utero therapy: analysis of 71 patients
Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in utero associated with hydrops fetalis
The normal fetus of an acardiac twin pregnancy: perinatal management based on echocardiographic and sonographic evaluation
Insertion of a pacing lead via the tricuspid valve does not affect cardiac function and tricuspid valve regurgitation in young dogs
Cardiac pacing in fetal lambs: intrauterine transvenous cardiac pacing for fetal complete heart block
Correlation between echocardiographic and morphological investigations of lesions of the tricuspid valve diagnosed during fetal life
Spectral analysis of heart period variance (HPV)--a tool to stratify risk following myocardial infarction
The Natural History of Atrioventricular Valve Regurgitation Throughout Fetal Life in Patients with Atrioventricular Canal Defects
The prevalence and clinical significance of fetal tricuspid valve regurgitation with normal heart anatomy
Prenatal diagnosis of atrioventricular canal malformations with up-to-date echocardiographic technology: report of 14 cases
Fetal two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography (colour flow mapping) and its place in prenatal diagnosis
Antenatal diagnosis of pulmonary arteriovenous fistula using real-time ultrasound and color Doppler flow imaging
Doppler echocardiographic assessment of atrioventricular velocity waveforms in normal and small-for-gestational-age fetuses
Characteristic diameter pulse waveform patterns of the inferior vena cava in fetuses with abnormalities of cardiac structure
A brief history of fetal echocardiography and its impact on the management of congenital heart disease
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.
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