Fetal echocardiography: a large clinical experience and follow-up

Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : Official Publication of the American Society of Echocardiography
G R Martin, R N Ruckman


We reviewed our experience with 382 fetal echocardiograms. Complete studies were not possible for three pregnancies because of either fetal position or maternal obesity. Studies were performed for fetal arrhythmia (28%), maternal factors (21%), fetal anomaly (11%) and family history of congenital heart disease (40%). There was a recurrence of heart disease in two of 153 patients (1.3%). Arrhythmia was the most common finding (82 of 382 patients). Premature atrial and ventricular contractions were the most common arrhythmia, and structural defects were present in four of 58 patients (6.8%) with premature contractions. Fetal heart defects (n = 44) were identified in 40 of 382 (10%) referrals. The defects were complete atrioventricular block (13), ventricular septal defect (4), atrioventricular canal (5), cardiac mass (3), ectopia cordis (2), thoracopagus (2), hypoplastic left ventricle (2), hypoplastic right ventricle (2), atrial flutter (2), pulmonic stenosis (1), single ventricle (2), Uhl's anomaly (1), Ebstein's anomaly (1), mitral atresia (1), d-transposition of the great vessels (1), tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve (1), and atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect (1). There were three false positiv...Continue Reading


Apr 1, 1988·The Journal of Pediatrics·F Z BiermanJ Driscoll
Jan 1, 1986·Circulation·K L ReedL Shenker
May 1, 1985·Journal of Clinical Ultrasound : JCU·N H SilvermanM S Golbus
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Jan 15, 1984·The American Journal of Cardiology·N H SilvermanM S Golbus
Oct 1, 1982·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·K TurleyP A Ebert
Oct 1, 1980·British Heart Journal·L D AllanR H Anderson

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