Thirteen fetuses with nonimmune hydrops (22 to 39 weeks of gestation) were evaluated with two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography. Ten fetuses had cardiovascular abnormalities resulting in heart failure, and three had noncardiac causes of hydrops. In three cases, hydrops was caused by supraventricular tachycardia. One of these fetuses responded to cardioversion at birth, another responded to transplacental digoxin therapy, and the third died with atrial flutter and high-grade atrioventricular block before delivery. There were no cases of "idiopathic" hydrops. Our results show that fetal echocardiography is useful in determining cardiac causes of in utero heart failure resulting in hydrops fetalis. The fetal echocardiogram may also be used in monitoring transplacental therapy of heart failure.
Coronary thrombosis with myocardial infarction in a newborn infant. Clinical, electrocardiographic and post-mortem findings
Simultaneous pulsed Doppler velocimetry of fetal aorta and inferior vena cava. Diagnosis of fetal congenital heart block; two case reports
Association of prenatal closure of the foramen ovale and fetal parvovirus B19 infection in hydrops fetalis
High-output cardiac failure in fetuses with large sacrococcygeal teratoma: diagnosis by echocardiography and Doppler ultrasound
Absence of the aortic valve: antenatal and postnatal two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic features
Cardiac pacing in fetal lambs: intrauterine transvenous cardiac pacing for fetal complete heart block
Assessment of right and left ventricular function in terms of force development with gestational age in the normal human fetus
Screening of congenital heart disease in the second trimester of pregnancy: current knowledge and new perspectives to the clinical practice
Prediction of fetal outcome without intrauterine intervention using a cardiovascular profile score: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Atrioventricular dissociation detected by suprasternal M-mode echocardiography: a clue to the diagnosis of ventricular tachycardia
The fetal cardiovascular response to increased placental vascular impedance to flow determined with 4-dimensional ultrasound using spatiotemporal image correlation and virtual organ computer-aided analysis
Clinical and electrophysiologic features of fetal and neonatal paroxysmal atrial tachycardia resulting in congestive heart failure
Fetal atrioventricular valve insufficiency associated with nonimmune hydrops: a two-dimensional echocardiographic and pulsed Doppler ultrasound study
Changes in intracardiac blood flow velocities and right and left ventricular stroke volumes with gestational age in the normal human fetus: a prospective Doppler echocardiographic study
Diagnosis and treatment of fetal cardiac disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association
Tachyarrhythmia, cardiac rhabdomyomata and fetal hydrops in a premature infant with tuberous sclerosis
Fetal supraventricular tachycardia: detection by routine auscultation and successful in-utero management. Case report
Radiofrequency catheter ablation in a haemodynamically compromised premature neonate with hydrops fetalis
Antenatal diagnosis of pulmonary arteriovenous fistula using real-time ultrasound and color Doppler flow imaging
Fetal echocardiography: the prenatal diagnosis of tricuspid atresia (type Ic) during the second trimester of pregnancy
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