PMID: 2798339Aug 1, 1989Paper

Fetal two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography (colour flow mapping) and its place in prenatal diagnosis

Prenatal Diagnosis
U GembruchR Bald


One hundred and fifty fetuses between 16 and 38 weeks of gestation were studied by fetal echocardiography using colour-coded two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography. Two-dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler spectral analyses were also performed. In 14 fetuses, structural and/or functional abnormalities were detected. Abnormalities were correctly ruled out in all the other fetuses. The advantages of two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography are (1) rapid screening for flow abnormalities in the fetal heart, and thus shortening of the Doppler examination time; (2) rapid diagnosis of valvular regurgitation, valvular stenosis, and abnormal shunting of blood across the interatrial and interventricular septa; and (3) facilitation of the diagnosis of complex congenital heart defects which in certain cases is possible only by using two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography.


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May 1, 1990·European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology·U GembruchM Hansmann
Feb 1, 1996·Journal of the American College of Cardiology·R A BerningM J Rice
Jan 1, 1991·Journal of Perinatal Medicine·U GembruchM Hansmann
Mar 24, 1998·Prenatal Diagnosis·U Gembruch
Mar 1, 2012·Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine : Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine·Neha TrivediDolores H Pretorius

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