Fifty Years of JC Polyomavirus: A Brief Overview and Remaining Questions

Abigail L Atkinson, Walter J Atwood


In the fifty years since the discovery of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV), the body of research representing our collective knowledge on this virus has grown substantially. As the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an often fatal central nervous system disease, JCPyV remains enigmatic in its ability to live a dual lifestyle. In most individuals, JCPyV reproduces benignly in renal tissues, but in a subset of immunocompromised individuals, JCPyV undergoes rearrangement and begins lytic infection of the central nervous system, subsequently becoming highly debilitating-and in many cases, deadly. Understanding the mechanisms allowing this process to occur is vital to the development of new and more effective diagnosis and treatment options for those at risk of developing PML. Here, we discuss the current state of affairs with regards to JCPyV and PML; first summarizing the history of PML as a disease and then discussing current treatment options and the viral biology of JCPyV as we understand it. We highlight the foundational research published in recent years on PML and JCPyV and attempt to outline which next steps are most necessary to reduce the disease burden of PML in populations at risk.


Mar 15, 1979·Nature·D P Lane, L V Crawford
Jul 1, 1992·Archives of Disease in Childhood·K BlakeB Taylor
Jan 1, 1991·Virology·K J Lynch, Richard J Frisque
Jun 1, 1989·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·R R ArthurK V Shah
Sep 1, 1987·Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology·Allen J AksamitJ G Guccion
Dec 1, 1968·Virology·A M Mattern CF DeLeva
Sep 1, 1970·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J V OstermanH V Aposhian
Aug 1, 1984·Journal of Virology·Richard J FrisqueM T Cannella
Jul 1, 1980·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·D V ColemanA M Field
Jan 1, 1994·Journal of Virology·P RieckmannJ H Kehrl
Jun 1, 1995·Journal of Neurovirology·P W Trowbridge, Richard J Frisque
Oct 6, 1997·Journal of Virology·J NesperH P Nasheuer
Mar 16, 2000·Seminars in Neurology·Joseph R Berger, Eugene O Major
Dec 26, 2001·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Igor J KoralnikNorman L Letvin
Oct 29, 2002·Journal of Neurovirology·Han ChangDeching Chang
Apr 10, 2003·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Juan BerenguerGESIDA 11/99 Study Group
Jul 15, 2003·Journal of Medical Virology·Wendy A KnowlesElizabeth Miller
Jun 1, 1953·Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine·L GROSS
Nov 1, 1960·Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine·B H SWEET, M R HILLEMAN
Oct 26, 1961·The New England Journal of Medicine·E P RICHARDSON
Sep 25, 2003·Neurology·Renaud A Du PasquierIgor J Koralnik
Jul 10, 2004·Experimental Cell Research·Asne Jul-LarsenStig Ove Bøe
Nov 20, 2004·Science·Gwendolyn F ElphickWalter J Atwood
Dec 22, 2004·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Markus Welcker, Bruce E Clurman
Jun 11, 2005·The New England Journal of Medicine·Annette Langer-GouldDaniel Pelletier
Jun 11, 2005·The New England Journal of Medicine·B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Kenneth L Tyler
Jun 11, 2005·The New England Journal of Medicine·Gert Van AsschePaul Rutgeerts
Jan 24, 2006·Lupus·J-F ViallardJ-L Pellegrin
Oct 14, 2006·Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases·Joseph R Berger
Feb 9, 2007·Journal of Virology·Tobias AllanderBjörn Andersson
Feb 22, 2007·Journal of Medical Virology·Andrea RossiPasquale Ferrante
Jul 5, 2007·PLoS Biology·Uhn Soo ChoWenqing Xu
Jan 19, 2008·Science·Huichen FengPatrick S Moore
Mar 1, 2008·Science·Katarina TrajkovicMikael Simons
May 14, 2008·The Journal of General Virology·Veerasamy Ravichandran, Eugene O Major
Aug 5, 2008·Trends in Pharmacological Sciences·Mark J MillanClotilde Mannoury la Cour
Aug 8, 2008·Journal of Virology·G J SeoC S Sullivan
Dec 23, 2008·Virology·Ellen Fanning, Kun Zhao
Dec 24, 2008·Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology·Christian WüthrichIgor J Koralnik
Mar 28, 2009·PLoS Pathogens·Jaime M KeanRobert L Garcea
Apr 8, 2009·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Nina KhannaSwiss HIV Cohort Study
May 13, 2009·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Adrian EgliH H Hirsch
Jul 31, 2009·Journal of Virology·Martyn K WhiteKamel Khalili
Aug 12, 2009·Neurobiology of Disease·William A Banks, Michelle A Erickson
Sep 26, 2009·The Lancet Infectious Diseases·Paola CinqueRichard W Price
Oct 16, 2009·Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry·Sarah GheuensIgor J Koralnik
Mar 20, 2010·PLoS Pathogens·Tadaki SuzukiHirofumi Sawa
Jun 15, 2010·Cell Host & Microbe·Rachel M SchowalterChristopher B Buck
Jul 28, 2010·Journal of Virology·Melissa S MaginnisWalter J Atwood
Jul 29, 2010·Neuroepidemiology·Krista L Yorita ChristensenLawrence B Schonberger
Aug 26, 2010·Annals of Neurology·Richard A RudickSusan E Goelz
Dec 17, 2010·European Journal of Neurology : the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies·UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) Study Steering CommitteeCaroline A Sabin
Jan 14, 2011·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·Martyn K White, Kamel Khalili
Feb 9, 2011·Transplant Infectious Disease : an Official Journal of the Transplantation Society·G KantarciG Yilmaz
Apr 26, 2011·Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology·Namita KotharyGerald Dal Pan
May 13, 2011·Archives of Virology·Reimar JohneLeonard C Norkin
Apr 13, 2012·PLoS Pathogens·Kimberly D EricksonRobert L Garcea
May 18, 2012·The New England Journal of Medicine·Gary BloomgrenCarmen Bozic
Sep 12, 2012·Journal of Virology·Christopher B BuckAlison A McBride
Sep 20, 2012·Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports·Israel Steiner, Joseph R Berger
Mar 12, 2013·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·James A DeCaprio, Robert L Garcea
Oct 4, 2013·Journal of Virology·Benedetta AssettaWalter J Atwood
Oct 15, 2013·The Journal of Infection·Michelle Pinto, Simon Dobson
Nov 18, 2014·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·Yoichi KondoSteven A Goldman
Mar 13, 2015·CNS Drugs·Eric M L Williamson, Joseph R Berger
May 7, 2015·DNA and Cell Biology·Lynn Pulliam, Archana Gupta
Sep 25, 2015·Science Translational Medicine·Upasana RayDiana V Pastrana
Nov 25, 2015·Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders·Dejan PavlovicProgressive Multifocal Leukeoncephalopathy Consortium
Dec 18, 2015·Journal of Neurovirology·Dhanashri P MiskinIgor J Koralnik
Aug 18, 2016·Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry·Martijn T WijburgMike P Wattjes
May 1, 2017·Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology·Sara Sadeghipour, Rommel A Mathias
May 12, 2017·Biological Chemistry·Benedetta Assetta, Walter J Atwood
Jun 24, 2017·Annual Review of Virology·Sheila A Haley, Walter J Atwood
Jun 27, 2017·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Nancy Raab-Traub, Dirk P Dittmer
Aug 8, 2017·Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology·Ifigeneia TzannouBilal Omer
Sep 16, 2017·Neurotherapeutics : the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics·Eric M L Williamson, Joseph R Berger
Nov 2, 2017·Cell Reports·Eileen M GeogheganChristopher B Buck
Nov 17, 2017·Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry·Mike P WattjesDutch-Belgian Natalizumab-Associated PML Study Group
Nov 21, 2017·MSphere·Saumya MaruAron E Lukacher
Nov 22, 2017·Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology : the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology·Michael CraigieIlker Kudret Sariyer
Feb 24, 2018·Immunobiology·Dejan PavlovicProgressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Consortium
Oct 12, 2018·The New England Journal of Medicine·Muharrem MuftuogluKatayoun Rezvani
Feb 1, 2019·Journal of Virology·Colleen L MayberryMelissa S Maginnis
Feb 28, 2019·Virology·Kimberly D Erickson, Robert L Garcea
Mar 14, 2019·Journal of Neurovirology·Ethan HoangDavid B Clifford
Apr 9, 2019·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Dorian McIlroyCéline Bressollette-Bodin
Apr 11, 2019·MBio·Jenna Morris-LoveWalter J Atwood
Apr 11, 2019·The New England Journal of Medicine·Ondine WalterImmune Checkpoint Inhibitors in PML Study Group
Apr 11, 2019·The New England Journal of Medicine·Irene CorteseAvindra Nath
Apr 11, 2019·The New England Journal of Medicine·Sebastian RauerBodo Grimbacher
May 30, 2019·MBio·Marianita Santiana, Nihal Altan-Bonnet
Sep 27, 2019·Neurology. Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation·Pria AnandFarrah J Mateen
Oct 11, 2019·Neurology. Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation·Marc PawlitzkiOliver M Grauer
Oct 11, 2019·Neurology. Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation·Clemens KüpperAndreas Straube
Oct 30, 2019·Open Forum Infectious Diseases·Alexandra Audemard-VergerAchille Aouba
Dec 11, 2019·Degenerative Neurological and Neuromuscular Disease·Marge KartauAuli Verkkoniemi-Ahola
Jan 4, 2020·Journal of Virology·Lynda HandalaFrancois Helle
Feb 26, 2020·The Journal of Infection·Elisa MazzoniFernanda Martini
Apr 13, 2020·Current Opinion in Virology·Erin S Beck, Irene Cortese
May 23, 2020·Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology·Stefano ScribanoSimone Giannecchini

Related Concepts

CNS Disorder
Gene Rearrangement
JC Virus
Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal
Immunocompromised Host
Medical History

Related Feeds

BK Virus Infection

BK virus infection is a significant complication of modern immunosuppression used in kidney transplantation. Discover the latest research on BK virus infection here.

Related Papers

Biological Chemistry
Benedetta Assetta, Walter J Atwood
APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, Et Immunologica Scandinavica
H H HirschCeline Leboeuf
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
Colleen L MayberryMelissa S Maginnis
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved