Finding functions of phase separation in the presynapse.

Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Nathan A McDonald, Kang Shen


Synapses are the basic units of neuronal communication. Understanding how synapses assemble and function is therefore essential to understanding nervous systems. Decades of study have identified many molecular components and functional mechanisms of synapses. Recently, an additional level of synaptic protein organization has been identified: phase separation. In the presynapse, components of the central active zone and a synaptic vesicle-clustering factor have been shown to form liquid-liquid phase-separated condensates or hydrogels. New in vivo functional studies have directly tested how phase separation impacts both synapse formation and function. Here, we review this emerging evidence for in vivo functional roles of phase separation at the presynapse and discuss future functional studies necessary to understand its complexity.


Nov 23, 2006·Nature Neuroscience·Maulik R PatelKang Shen
Dec 15, 2006·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Stefan KallaNils Brose
Jan 16, 2009·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Shlomo TsurielNoam E Ziv
Mar 25, 2010·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Konark MukherjeeThomas C Südhof
Aug 12, 2010·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·John C PriceSina Ghaemmaghami
Dec 15, 2010·Neuron·Adish DaniXiaowei Zhuang
Jul 17, 2012·Neuron·Thomas C Südhof
Jun 12, 2013·The Journal of Cell Biology·Samantha A SpanglerCasper C Hoogenraad
Sep 19, 2014·Nature Communications·Amir TaslimiChandra L Tucker
Jul 28, 2016·Nature·Ai-Hui TangThomas A Blanpied
Nov 1, 2016·The EMBO Journal·Vicky HakimNoam E Ziv
Feb 23, 2017·Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology·Salman F BananiMichael K Rosen
Mar 8, 2017·The Journal of Cell Biology·Hiroshi KawabeNils Brose
Dec 13, 2017·Nature Neuroscience·Hirokazu SakamotoKenzo Hirose
Dec 21, 2017·Trends in Biochemical Sciences·Jeffrey B WoodruffElvan Boke
Feb 14, 2018·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Man Yan WongPascal S Kaeser
Jul 7, 2018·Science·Dragomir MilovanovicPietro De Camilli
Jan 22, 2019·Molecular Cell·Xiandeng WuMingjie Zhang
Mar 8, 2019·Nature Communications·Mathias A BöhmeAlexander M Walter
Mar 28, 2019·The Journal of Cell Biology·Pragya GoelDion Dickman
Jul 3, 2019·The Journal of Cell Biology·Justin H TrotterThomas C Südhof
Sep 19, 2019·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Yuto KushibikiHidenori Taru
Oct 9, 2019·Genes & Development·David T McSwiggenRobert Tjian
Dec 4, 2019·Current Opinion in Structural Biology·Ivan Peran, Tanja Mittag
Feb 6, 2020·Nature Neuroscience·Xudong ChenMingjie Zhang
Mar 7, 2020·Current Biology : CB·Sheng HuangStephan J Sigrist
May 4, 2020·Cell·Joshua R Sanes, S Lawrence Zipursky
May 13, 2020·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Benjamin S SchusterJeetain Mittal
May 14, 2020·Current Opinion in Neurobiology·Javier Emperador-Melero, Pascal S Kaeser
Jun 10, 2020·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Takafumi MikiTakeshi Sakaba

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

Landau Kleffner syndrome (LKS), also called infantile acquired aphasia, acquired epileptic aphasia, or aphasia with convulsive disorder, is a rare childhood neurological syndrome characterized by the sudden or gradual development of aphasia (the inability to understand or express language) and an abnormal electroencephalogram. Discover the latest research on LKS here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.