PMID: 2494418Jan 1, 1989Paper

Fluorescence microscopy in three dimensions

Methods in Cell Biology
D A AgardJ W Sedat


The combination of the specificity provided by fluorescence microscopy and the ability to quantitatively analyze specimens in three dimensions allows the fundamental organization of cells to be probed as never before. Key features in this emergent technology have been the development of a wide variety of fluorescent dyes or fluorescently labeled probes to provide the requisite specificity. High-quality, cooled charge-coupled devices have recently become available. Functioning as nearly ideal imagers or "electronic film," they are more sensitive than photomultipliers and provide extraordinarily accurate direct digital readout from the microscope. Not only is this precision crucial for accurate quantitative imaging such as that required for the ratioing necessary to determine intracellular ion concentrations, but it also opens the way for sophisticated image processing. It is important to realize that image processing isn't simply a means to improve image aesthetics, but can directly provide new, biologically important information. The impact of modern video microscopy techniques (Allen, 1985; Inoué, 1986) attests to the fact that many biologically relevant phenomena take place at the limits of conventional microscopy. Image proc...Continue Reading


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