Nov 22, 2007

Follistatin antagonizes transforming growth factor-beta3-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro: implications for murine palatal development supported by microarray analysis

Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Hendrik NogaiRoland Lauster


Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in normal embryonic development as well as in tumor progression and invasiveness. This process is also known to be a crucial step in palatogenesis during fusion of the bi-lateral palatal processes. Disruption of this step results in a cleft palate, which is among the most frequent birth defects in humans. A number of genes and encoded proteins have been shown to play a role in this developmental stage. The central role is attributed to the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-beta3), which is expressed in the medial edge epithelium (MEE) already before the fusion process. The MEE covers the tips of the growing palatal shelves and eventually undergoes EMT or programmed cell death (apoptosis). TGF-beta3 is described to induce EMT in embryonic palates. With regard to the early expression of this molecule before the fusion process, it is not well understood which mechanisms prevent the TGF-beta3 producing epithelial cells from undergoing differentiation precociously. We used the murine palatal fusion to study the regulation of EMT. Specifically, we analyzed the MEE for the expression of known antagonists of TGF-beta molecules using in situ hybridization and detected the ...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Recombinant Transforming Growth Factor
Microarray Analysis
Transforming Growth Factor beta
BHLHE22 wt Allele
Barrett Esophagus
Structure of Papilla Incisiva of Mouth
Mammary Gland
Nucleic Acid Hybridization Procedure
Squamous Transitional Epithelial Cell Count

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Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis