Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle

PLoS Computational Biology
Kyle P BlumLena H Ting


Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt)...Continue Reading

Associated Datasets

Sep 18, 2018·Daniel ZytnickiBoris Lamotte D’Incamps


Jun 1, 1979·The Journal of Physiology·Y J Kuo, L L Shanbour
Aug 1, 1975·The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. Le Journal Canadien Des Sciences Neurologiques·R G Lee, W G Tatton
Jan 1, 1977·The American Journal of Physiology·D L Morgan
Nov 1, 1985·The Journal of Physiology·U Proske, G J Stuart
Jan 1, 1985·Journal of Neurophysiology·L JamiD Zytnicki
Feb 1, 1969·The Journal of Physiology·P B MATTHEWS, R B Stein
Jan 1, 1974·Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology·S S Schäfer, S Kijewski
Jul 1, 1974·The Journal of Physiology·P M Rack, D R Westbury
Apr 1, 1983·Journal of Neurophysiology·Z Hasan
Feb 1, 1984·The Journal of Physiology·P M Rack, D R Westbury
Jul 1, 1981·Journal of Neurophysiology·J C HoukPatrick E Crago
Apr 4, 1998·The Journal of Physiology·A Prochazka, M Gorassini
Nov 10, 1998·The Journal of Physiology·N Kakuda, M Nagaoka
Nov 25, 1998·Biophysical Journal·E B GetzS L Lehman
Nov 11, 1999·Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility·U Proske, D L Morgan
Jan 19, 2002·The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry : Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society·Jing-Xia LiuFatima Pedrosa-Domellöf
Jan 25, 2002·Biophysical Journal·Kenneth S Campbell, Richard L Moss
Mar 5, 2002·Annals of Biomedical Engineering·Chou-Ching K Lin, Patrick E Crago
Mar 6, 2002·Journal of Neurophysiology·Paul J CordoV S Gurfinkel
Dec 26, 2003·Journal of Neurophysiology·Valerie K HaftelTimothy C Cope
Mar 30, 2004·The Journal of Physiology·Ian D LoramMartin Lakie
Nov 4, 2004·Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology·T R Nichols, Timothy C Cope
Sep 2, 2005·Journal of Neural Engineering·Eun Jung Hwang, Reza Shadmehr
May 5, 2006·Journal of Neurophysiology·Milana P MileusnicGerald E Loeb
Sep 18, 2007·Nature Neuroscience·Daniel B Lockhart, Lena H Ting
Dec 21, 2007·Journal of Neurophysiology·Torrence D J Welch, Lena H Ting
May 24, 2008·Journal of Biomechanics·Lei CuiThomas G Sandercock
Jul 8, 2009·The Journal of Physiology·U Proske, Simon C Gandevia
Oct 16, 2009·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Hillel J ChielMitra J Z Hartmann
May 4, 2010·Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology·Jonathan ShemmellEric J Perreault
Nov 9, 2010·Current Biology : CB·Rui Xiao, X Z Shawn Xu
Oct 3, 2012·International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering·Lena H TingJ Lucas McKay
Nov 23, 2012·Journal of the Royal Society, Interface·Tamás InspergerGábor Stépán
May 31, 2013·Journal of Neurophysiology·Brian C HorslenMark G Carpenter
Oct 15, 2013·Cell·Patrick Delmas, Bertrand Coste
Dec 18, 2013·Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology·René J M Bindels, Carsten A Wagner
Feb 12, 2014·The Journal of General Physiology·Kenneth S Campbell
Mar 26, 2014·The Journal of Physiology·Anthony TsayU Proske
May 9, 2014·PloS One·Torrence D J Welch, Lena H Ting
Sep 10, 2014·Experimental Brain Research·U ProskeTrevor Allen
Oct 10, 2014·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Michael Dimitriou
Apr 5, 2016·Current Biology : CB·Michael Dimitriou
Jan 13, 2017·Journal of Neurophysiology·James DayAndrew G Cresswell


Jul 19, 2018·Journal of Neurophysiology·Kevin A MazurekM Hongchul Sohn
Mar 7, 2019·Skeletal Muscle·Lindsey A LeeLeslie A Leinwand
May 10, 2019·Journal of Applied Physiology·Martin Lakie, Kenneth S Campbell
Jun 6, 2019·Journal of Neurophysiology·Mélanie Henry, Stéphane Baudry
Aug 29, 2019·Journal of Neurophysiology·Alexander MathisSamuel D McDougle
Oct 23, 2019·Scientific Reports·Brendan PrendergastSliman J Bensmaia
Apr 19, 2018·Journal of Neurophysiology·Vaughan G Macefield, Thomas P Knellwolf
Jan 4, 2019·Experimental Brain Research·U Proske, Trevor Allen
Mar 20, 2019·ELife·Nidhi Seethapathi, Manoj Srinivasan
Sep 14, 2019·The Journal of Experimental Biology·David C LinLena H Ting
Aug 28, 2020·Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology·Jente WillaertFriedl De Groote
Sep 29, 2020·Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology·Anne D Koelewijn, Auke J Ijspeert
Dec 16, 2020·Neurology India·Johnie O HodgeNicholas J Brandmeir
Feb 19, 2021·Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation·Ronald C van 't VeldEdwin H F van Asseldonk

Related Concepts

Nerve Impulses
In Silico
Muscle Spindles
Physical Stimulation
Reflex, Tendon
Stress, Mechanical
Soleus Muscle Structure
Mechanotransduction, Cellular
Elastic Modulus
Limb Structure

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a rare rheumatic disease that affects children. Symptoms include joint pain, but also fevers and skin rashes. Here is the latest on this disease.

Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks

The circadian clock plays an important role in regulating transcriptional dynamics through changes in chromatin folding and remodelling. Discover the latest research on Chromatin Regulation and Circadian Clocks here.

Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central Pontine Myelinolysis is a neurologic disorder caused most frequently by rapid correction of hyponatremia and is characterized by demyelination that affects the central portion of the base of the pons. Here is the latest research on this disease.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia

Pontocerebellar hypoplasias are a group of neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorders with prenatal onset, atrophy or hypoplasia of the cerebellum, hypoplasia of the ventral pons, microcephaly, variable neocortical atrophy and severe mental and motor impairments. Here is the latest research on pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

Cell Atlas Along the Gut-Brain Axis

Profiling cells along the gut-brain axis at the single cell level will provide unique information for each cell type, a three-dimensional map of how cell types work together to form tissues, and insights into how changes in the map underlie health and disease of the GI system and its crosstalk with the brain. Disocver the latest research on single cell analysis of the gut-brain axis here.

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease that occurs in individuals that suffer repetitive brain trauma. Discover the latest research on traumatic encephalopathy here.