Foxp3 Post-translational Modifications and Treg Suppressive Activity

Frontiers in Immunology
Guoping DengMark I Greene


Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are engaged in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmunity. Treg cells include thymic Treg cells and peripheral Treg cells, both of which can suppress the immune response via multiple distinct mechanisms. The differentiation, proliferation, suppressive function and survival of Treg cells are affected by distinct energy metabolic programs. Tissue-resident Treg cells hold unique features in comparison with the lymphoid organ Treg cells. Foxp3 transcription factor is a lineage master regulator for Treg cell development and suppressive activity. Accumulating evidence indicates that the activity of Foxp3 protein is modulated by various post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, O-GlcNAcylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation and methylation. These modifications affect multiple aspects of Foxp3 function. In this review, we define features of Treg cells and roles of Foxp3 in Treg biology, and summarize current research in PTMs of Foxp3 protein involved in modulating Treg function. This review also attempts to define Foxp3 dimer modifications relevant to mediating Foxp3 activity and Treg suppression. Understanding Foxp3 protein features and modulation mechanisms may help i...Continue Reading


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