Regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a cell type that promotes immune tolerance to autologous components and maintains immune system homeostasis. The abnormal function of Tregs is relevant to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and other autoimmune diseases. Therefore, therapeutic modulation of Tregs could be a potent means of treating autoimmune diseases. Human Tregs are diverse, however, and not all of them have immunosuppressive effects. Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), a pivotal transcription factor of Tregs that is crucial in maintaining Treg immunosuppressive function, can be expressed heterogeneously or unstably across Treg subpopulations. Insights into modulating Treg differentiation on the level of DNA transcription or protein modification may improve the success of Treg modifying immunotherapies. In this review, we will summarize three main prospects: the regulatory mechanism of Foxp3, the influence on Foxp3 and Tregs in autoimmune diseases, then finally, how Tregs can be used to treat autoimmune diseases.
Th1 (IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)) and Th2 (IL-10, IL-4) cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
B7/CD28 costimulation is essential for the homeostasis of the CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells that control autoimmune diabetes
Disruption of a new forkhead/winged-helix protein, scurfin, results in the fatal lymphoproliferative disorder of the scurfy mouse
CD4(+)CD25(+) immune regulatory cells are required for induction of tolerance to alloantigen via costimulatory blockade
CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells dependent on ICOS promote regulation of effector cells in the prediabetic lesion
Compromised function of regulatory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis and reversal by anti-TNFalpha therapy
Reversible histone acetylation and deacetylation mediate genome-wide, promoter-dependent and locus-specific changes in gene expression during plant development
Interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1ra and IL-12 profiles in active and quiescent systemic lupus erythematosus: could longitudinal studies reveal patient subgroups of differing pathology?
CD28 costimulation of developing thymocytes induces Foxp3 expression and regulatory T cell differentiation independently of interleukin 2
TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells
Single-cell analysis of normal and FOXP3-mutant human T cells: FOXP3 expression without regulatory T cell development
Expansion of FOXP3high regulatory T cells by human dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and after injection of cytokine-matured DCs in myeloma patients
A regulatory CD4+ T cell subset in the BB rat model of autoimmune diabetes expresses neither CD25 nor Foxp3
Rapamycin promotes expansion of functional CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells of both healthy subjects and type 1 diabetic patients
Induction of FOXP3 expression in naive human CD4+FOXP3 T cells by T-cell receptor stimulation is transforming growth factor-beta dependent but does not confer a regulatory phenotype
The role of CD8+CD28 regulatory cells in suppressing myasthenia gravis-associated responses by a dual altered peptide ligand
The quantitative analysis of peripheral blood FOXP3-expressing T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis patients
Cutting edge: Foxp3-mediated induction of pim 2 allows human T regulatory cells to preferentially expand in rapamycin
Natural naive CD4+CD25+CD127low regulatory T cell (Treg) development and function are disturbed in multiple sclerosis patients: recovery of memory Treg homeostasis during disease progression
A critical function for TGF-beta signaling in the development of natural CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells
A critical function for transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 and proinflammatory cytokines in driving and modulating human T(H)-17 responses
The differentiation of human T(H)-17 cells requires transforming growth factor-beta and induction of the nuclear receptor RORgammat
Quantitative and qualitative deficiencies of regulatory T cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Reduced CD4+,CD25- T cell sensitivity to the suppressive function of CD4+,CD25high,CD127 -/low regulatory T cells in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus
IL-2, -7, and -15, but not thymic stromal lymphopoeitin, redundantly govern CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell development
Anti-ribosomal phosphoprotein autoantibody triggers interleukin-10 overproduction via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signalling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages
IL-4 inhibits TGF-beta-induced Foxp3+ T cells and, together with TGF-beta, generates IL-9+ IL-10+ Foxp3(-) effector T cells
In Vivo PET Imaging of the Activated Immune Environment in a Small Animal Model of Inflammatory Arthritis
DW2008S and its major constituents from Justicia procumbens exert anti-asthmatic effect via multitargeting activity
Meat Intake and the Dose of Vitamin B3 - Nicotinamide: Cause of the Causes of Disease Transitions, Health Divides, and Health Futures?
Helios + Regulatory T cell frequencies are correlated with control of viral replication and recovery of absolute CD4 T cells counts in early HIV-1 infection
Risk of major autoimmune diseases in female breast cancer patients: A nationwide, population-based cohort study
Comprehensive flow cytometric reference intervals of leukocyte subsets from six study centers across Europe.
Effect of oral administration of β-glucans derived from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 in model mice and rat with atopic dermatitis-like phenotypes
Regulatory T Cells As Supporters of Psychoimmune Resilience: Toward Immunotherapy of Major Depressive Disorder
Association of Ulcerative Colitis with FOXP3 Gene Polymorphisms and Its Colonic Expression in Chinese Patients
Getting to the Heart of the Matter: The Role of Regulatory T-Cells (Tregs) in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and Atherosclerosis
DNMT1-mediated Foxp3 gene promoter hypermethylation involved in immune dysfunction caused by arsenic in human lymphocytes
CD4+ CD45RA- FOXP3low Regulatory T Cells as Potential Biomarkers of Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Brazilian Patients
The Role of Natural Killer Cells and Regulatory T Cells While Aging with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Menopausal factors and risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis in postmenopausal women: a nationwide cohort study of 1.36 million women.
Vitamin D Insufficiency is Not Associated With Pediatric and Adolescent Immune Thrombocytopenia: A Study in Conjunction With its Receptor Genetic Polymorphisms.
A First-in-Human Phase I Study of Subcutaneous Outpatient Recombinant Human IL15 (rhIL15) in Adults with Advanced Solid Tumors
Paeoniflorin ameliorates murine lupus nephritis by increasing CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells via enhancing mTNFα-TNFR2 pathway.
Blunted Expansion of Regulatory T Lymphocytes Is Associated With Increased Bacterial Translocation in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.
Protective Effect of the α7 Nicotinic Receptor Agonist PNU-282987 on Dopaminergic Neurons Against 6-Hydroxydopamine, Regulating Anti-neuroinflammatory and the Immune Balance Pathways in Rat.
Epithelial cell-derived CD83 restores immune tolerance in the airway mucosa by inducing regulatory T-cell differentiation.
Effect of intraoperative blood transfusion on Treg and FOXP3 in patients with digestive tract malignancies and different ABO blood types.
Sex Differences in the Immune System Become Evident in the Perinatal Period in the Four Core Genotypes Mouse.
Autoimmune diseases occur as a result of an attack by the immune system on the body’s own tissues resulting in damage and dysfunction. There are different types of autoimmune diseases, in which there is a complex and unknown interaction between genetics and the environment. Discover the latest research on autoimmune diseases here.